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Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2018
Volume 9 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 219-286

Online since Monday, January 21, 2019

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EDITORIALS  

From “only decompression” to “only fixation:” A century-long journey of surgical treatment for spinal spondylosis p. 219
Atul Goel
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_118_18  
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Suboccipital pain in Chiari formation: Its cause and significance p. 221
Atul Goel
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_117_18  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Preliminary results of anterior cervical arthroplasty by porous alumina ceramic cage for cervical disc herniation surgery p. 223
Keyvan Mostofi, Babak Gharaei Moghaddam, Morad Peyravi, Reza Karimi Khouzani
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_95_18  
Objective: Anterior cervical arthroplasty (ACA) is the gold standard surgery in severe or unresponsive cases of cervical disc herniation, uncarthrosis, and foraminal stenosis. The aim of this study is to establish the impact and outcome evaluations of managing the patients operated for cervical arthroplasty by the intersomatic porous alumina ceramic cervical cages (PACC). The authors describe their experience in the area to allow the comparison of effectiveness of ceramic cages versus other interbody fusion cages. Materials and Methods: Between April 2015 and September 2018, we operated 118 for ACA by using PACC. Among them, 52 were female and 66 were male, with an average age of 46.78 years. Results: The mean symptoms duration was 14.1 months. The most frequent level of the disorder was C5–C6 followed by C6–C7 level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the visual analog scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the patients status. No significant differences were observed between our results and literature data regarding operative time, duration of hospitalization, and NDI; however, we observed a shorter period and higher rate of bony fusion. Conclusion: The results from the present study corroborate that implementing of PACC is a good alternative treatment for the patient operated by ACA for cervical disc herniation or foraminal cervical stenosis.
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Timing for surgical intervention in DISHphagia p. 227
Waeel Ossama Hamouda
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_83_18  
Introduction: Dysphagia in old patients secondary to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) syndrome is underdiagnosed. Surgical resection of the offending osteophytes is the definitive treatment. However, the timing of surgery in the course of the disease is still controversial. The study tries to find a correlation if any, between the timing of osteophytectomy surgery aimed to relieve DISH syndrome-induced dysphagia and the surgical outcome. Methods: During the period from 2010 to 2015, clinical and radiological data of patients who presented with dysphagia attributed to DISH syndrome were retrospectively reviewed along with their management and outcome. Results: One female and seven male patients were included in the study. Mean age was 71 years. Mean duration of dysphagia was 3 years and 10 months. Surgical resection was attempted through anterolateral cervical approach in five cases who were fit for surgery, in which four showed complete resolution of dysphagia (one experienced transient hoarseness of voice for 4 weeks postoperatively), and the fifth showed minimal improvement after limited resection due to intraoperative finding of marked esophageal adherence to osteophytes. The two unfavorable outcomes (subtotal resection and transient hoarseness of voice) occurred in relatively older patients (average: 75.5 years) with longer standing dysphagia (average: 7 years). Conclusion: DISH syndrome as a cause of dysphagia is commonly underlooked. Surgical resection of the offending osteophytes through an anterolateral approach is a safe and effective procedure. For patients who are fit for surgery, older age or longer duration of dysphagia might be associated with less favorable surgical outcome.
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Who benefits more in osteoporotic fractures: Pedicle screw instrumentation or kyphoplasty for American Society of Anesthesiologists II/III patients? p. 232
Tjark Tassemeier, Marcel Haversath, Moritz Schutzbach, Marcus Jäger
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_55_18  
Purpose: Osteoporotc fractures with posterior wall injury are commonly treated with a pedicle srcrew instrumentation (PSI) or a ballonkyphoplasty (BKP). A predictor for complications for these patients is the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class. Clinical results in ASA II/III patients who underwent BKP and PSI due to OF were evaluated to find the optimal treatment regimen. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study design, ASA Class II and III patients with OF type OF 2 and OF 3 according to the German Society of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery classification who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2016 were enrolled. Perioperative data such as time of surgery, cement leakage, adjacent level fractures, screw loosening, wound infections, and segmental kyphosis correction were measured and a statistical analysis was conducted. Results: Ninety-nine patients met the inclusion criteria, 17 were classified as ASA II and 82 patients were classified as ASA III. Twenty-eight individuals were treated by PSI, whereas 71 underwent BKP. Not only a longer average operation (120 min) and hospital stay (21 days) were documented in the PSI group but also a better kyphosis correction (7.5°). In comparison, the BKP group required an average operation time of 35.5 min with a mean kyphosis correction of 2.1°. A statistical analysis revealed the surgical procedure and not the ASA class to be a relevant factor for complication and revision surgery. Conclusions: BKP is a safe and effective therapy including also fractures with posterior wall defects while PSI showed advantages in restoring the sagittal realignment but higher complication and revision risk.
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Lumbar disk herniation: How far should efforts go to minimally invasive procedure? p. 238
Keyvan Mostofi, Babak Gharaei Moghadam, Morad Peyravi, Reza Karimi Khouzani
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_70_18  
Background: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of lumbar disk herniation allows avoiding less of a mess in crossing structures, reducing muscular and cutaneous scarring, postoperative pain, lengthy recovery times, and the rate of infection. The aim of this study is to explain our experience in MIS of disc herniation. We compare the outcome of three different surgical techniques used for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Materials and Methods: A total of 1147 patients have been operated from July 2008 to December 2015 for lumbar disk herniation by posterior endoscopic approach. Three hundred and seventy-nine patients underwent discectomy and herniectomy (DH), 557 patients have been operated by herniectomy (H), and 211 patients underwent only bone decompression (BD). Results: The results show 80.10%, 82.06%, and 84.02% excellent outcome, respectively, in BD, DH, and BD techniques. Conclusion: Analysis of the data demonstrates that the results obtained are equivalent and comparable in different used techniques for the treatment of disc herniation, we do not need to perform discectomy in all cases in a systematic way.
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Ability of magnetic resonance imaging to accurately determine alar ligament integrity in patients with atlanto-occipital injuries p. 241
Adam R Dyas, Thomas E Niemeier, Gerald Mcgwin, Steven M Theiss
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_81_18  
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the the reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing alar ligament disruption in patients with potential atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD). Materials and Methods: Three-blinded readers performed retrospective review on 6 patients with intra-operative confirmed atlanto-occipital dissocation in addition to a comparison cohort of patients with other cervical injuries that did not involve the atlanto-occipital articulation. Ligament integrity was graded from 1 to 3 as described by Krakenes et al. The right and left ligaments were assessed separately. Inter-observer agreement by patient, by group (AOD vs. non-AOD), and intra-observer agreement was calculated using weighted Cohen's kappa. Results: Interobserver agreement of alar ligament grade for individual patients ranged from slight to fair (κ = 0.05–0.30). Interobserver agreement of alar ligament grade for each group (AOD vs. non-AOD) ranged from fair to substantial (κ = 0.37–0.66). No statistically significant difference in categorical analysis of groups (AOD vs. non-AOD) and grade (0–1 vs. 2–3) was observed. Intraobserver agreement of individual patient's alar ligament grade ranged from moderate to substantial (κ = 0.50–0.62). Conclusion: The use of MRI to detect upper cervical ligament injuries in AOD is imperfect. Our results show inconsistent and unsatisfactory interobserver and intraobserver reliability in evaluation of alar ligament injuries. While MRI has immense potential for detection of ligamentous injury at the craniovertebral junction, standardized algorithms for its use and interpretation need to be developed.
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On the linear sizes of vertebrae and intervertebral discs of children in the beginning of puberty p. 246
Mikhail Dudin, Yuri Baloshin, Igor Popov, Nikita Lisitsa, Stepan Bober
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_91_18  
Study Design: We collected experimental data concerning vertebrae sizes and performed an investigation of these data for different patient ages by methods of mathematical statistics. Purpose: The standard dimensions of vertebrae and intervertebral discs are of major importance for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of spine diseases and their successful treatment. The purpose is to study these sizes for children at the age of 9–14 years. Overview of Literature: Unfortunately, this issue is poorly presented in the corresponding literature. There are no systematic results. Only particular cases are presented. Materials and Methods: Experimental is based on the: results of X-ray investigations of children spines. Theoretical background is given by methods of mathematical statistics. Results: Systematic description of vertebrae sizes for children of age 9–14 is given. This specific age interval is the most common period of initiation of various pathological deformations of human spine. Conclusions: The acquired data both reflect the process of spine growth and can serve for building correct mathematical models of a healthful or diseased spine.
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A novel technique for the subfascial insertion of magnetically controlled growing rods – The Alder Hey technique p. 250
Sudarshan Munigangaiah, Phil Brown, Mohamed Mohamed, Colin E Bruce, Jayesh M Trivedi, Neil T Davidson
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_105_18  
Purpose: In this study, we would like to describe a novel technique for subfascial insertion of magnetically controlled growing rods using chest drain during surgery for early-onset scoliosis. Materials and Methods: Posterior approach, surgical dissection to the spine is performed exposing the relevant anatomy to allow placement of pedicle screws always in the distal construct and pedicle screws or hooks in the proximal construct. To allow easy passage of the Magnetic Expansion Control (MAGEC) rod, as well as easy maneuvering of the rod in either the cranial to caudal direction, we use a chest drain of size 24 French diameter as a tunnel. This allows surgeons to fit the nonflexible part of MAGEC rod in the middle of the deformity and cut to length passed through the chest drain from a cranial to caudal position and then chest drain is removed. Results: A total of 40 children with early-onset scoliosis had insertion of MAGEC rods using this technique. There were 21 female and 19 male patients. Early-onset scoliosis etiology is idiopathic in 20 patients, neuromuscular in 16 patients, and others in 4 patients. Median age across all groups was 7 years (range 4–13) at the time of surgery. Follow-up ranged from 11 to 56 months with a median of 24 months. Conclusion: The use of a chest drain during subfascial passage of magnetically controlled growing rod is a safe, reliable, reproducible novel technique. This shortens overall time of surgery in our experience.
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Clinical and radiological union rate evaluation of type 2 odontoid fractures: A comparison between anterior screw fixation and halo vest in elderly patients p. 254
Massimo Girardo, Alessandro Rava, Giosuè Gargiulo, Angela Coniglio, Stefano Artiaco, Alessandro Massè, Federico Fusini
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_93_18  
Purpose: Odontoid fracture is a very common cervical injury, especially in elderly patients. Despite the high frequency, the appropriate management is still debated. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes after anterior screw fixation or halo vest (HV) in type II odontoid fracture in elderly patients. Materials and Methods: Between January 2013 and December 2015, 135 consecutive patients affected by odontoid process were found. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 57 patients were included in the study. Patients were evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS), Smiley–Webster Scale (SWS), Italian Version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and patient satisfaction during follow-up. Furthermore, radiological data were evaluated for bone healing. Student's t-test or Fisher's exact test was used between groups, analyzing radiological and clinical results, and level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Seventeen patients were female and 40 were male. Twenty-seven patients were included in surgical group (SG) while 30 were included in HV group with a mean follow-up of 37.74 ± 10.52 months. A significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups was found for pseudoarthrosis, with a lower rate for SG. No significant differences in term of VAS, NDI, and SWS were found between groups (P > 0.05); SG reached higher satisfaction than HV group (P = 0.0271). Conclusions: Both treatments are equivalent in terms of clinical outcomes, and they are a valuable choice in the management of type II odontoid fracture. However, it must be considered that patients could slightly tolerate HV and may need a change of treatment.
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Recurrent lumbar disc herniation: Is there a correlation with the surgical technique? A multivariate analysis p. 260
Alessandro Landi, Giovanni Grasso, Cristina Mancarella, Demo Eugenio Dugoni, Fabrizio Gregori, Giorgia Iacopino, Harrison Xiao Bai, Nicola Marotta, Andrea Iaquinandi, Roberto Delfini
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_94_18  
Purpose: The recurrence of a lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common cause of poor outcome following lumbar discectomy. The aim of this study was to assess a potential relationship between the incidence of recurrent LDH and the surgical technique used. Furthermore, we tried to define the best surgical technique for the treatment of recurrent LDH to limit subsequent recurrences. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 979 consecutive patients treated for LDH. A multivariate analysis tried to identify a possible correlation between (1) the surgical technique used to treat the primary LDH and its recurrence; (2) technique used to treat the recurrence of LDH and the second recurrence; and (3) incidence of recurrence and clinical outcome. Data were analyzed with the Pearson's Chi-square test for its significance. Results: In 582 cases (59.4%), a discectomy was performed, while in 381 (40.6%), a herniectomy was undertaken. In 16 cases, a procedure marked as “other” was performed. Among all patients, 110 (11.2%) had a recurrence. Recurrent LDH was observed in 55 patients following discectomy (9.45%), in 45 following herniectomy (11.8%), and in 10 (62.5%) following other surgery. Our data showed that 90.5% of discectomies and 88.2% of the herniectomies had a good clinical outcome, whereas other surgeries presented a recurrence rate of 62.5% (Pearson's χ2 < 0.001). No statistical differences were observed between discectomy or herniectomy, for the treatment of the recurrence, and the incidence for the second recurrences (P > 0.05). A significant statistical correlation emerged between the use of other techniques and the incidence for the second recurrences (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The recurrence of an LDH is one of the most feared complications following surgery. Although the standard discectomy has been considered more protective toward the recurrence compared to herniectomy, our data suggest that there is no significant correlation between the surgical technique and the risk of LDH recurrence.
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CASE REPORTS Top

The repair using a fibular graft of cervical vertebral collapse due to renal cell carcinoma: Late results with a case report p. 267
Vaner Koksal, Hüseyin Eren, Hasan Güçer
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_32_18  
The most common cause of spinal tumors is metastases, but the cervical vertebra is the least common region of spinal metastasis, and relatively, little is published about surgery in metastasis to the cervical vertebra. While spinal metastasis is most often caused by neoplasms originating from the lung, breast, and prostate, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis is very rare. A 47-year-old patient introduced here presented with severe pain spontaneously on his neck and in his arm. In the radiology of the patient without neurological deficit, a pathologic vertebral collapse was detected in the C6 vertebral corpus. The patient underwent anterior cervical corpectomy. The fibula graft taken from his right leg was implanted in the emptied area and supported by an anterior plaque, and restoration of physiological cervical lordosis was established. From the pathological tissue that was taken, it was determined that the cause of the lysis was an RCC metastasis. After surgical repair of the cervical spine, a primary pathology with a diameter of 10 cm was detected in the patient's kidney, and a radical nephrectomy was performed. After 6 years of follow-up, there was no recurrence, and the patient continued his normal daily life. Radiologically between the autologous fibula graft and its own vertebral body was observed to achieve very good fusion. In this study, we emphasized the importance of resection of metastasis together with a primary tumor in a metastatic RCC case to cure the patient and provide the desired quality of life.
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Transthoracic approach for ventrally situated paraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the dorsal spine p. 271
Mohnish P Dighe, Srikant Balasubramaniam, Trimurti D Nadkarni
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_71_18  
A 40-year-old female presented with back pain without any neurological deficits. Radiological investigations revealed a ventrally situated paraspinal lesion causing widening of the right D4 neural foramen. She underwent a right posterolateral thoracotomy and excision of the lesion in toto, which was reported as a hydatid cyst on histology. Ventrally situated paraspinal extradural hydatid cysts are rare. A Transthoracic surgical exposure offers a direct approach for complete excision of the lesion, minimizing the chances of rupture and spillage.
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Autostabilization of neglected high-grade fracture–dislocation in the cervical spine p. 274
Kunal Shah, Akshay Gadiya, Abhay Nene
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_92_18  
Neglected cervical spine trauma is rare with very few case series reported in literature. There are no clear guidelines for its treatment. If operative treatment is sought, the role of skull traction, type of approach (anterior only, posterior only, or combined), sequence of surgery, type of instrumentation, etc., have to be considered. Hence, the treatment is challenging. Autostabilization has been described in the natural history of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. As a result, many patients are treated nonoperatively, obviating need of surgery. We report two cases of neglected/untreated fracture–dislocation at subaxial cervical spine. They presented with exertional neck pain. Computed tomography scan showed bony fusion at involved level. The patient was treated nonsurgically with favorable outcome at long-term follow-up. Our cases depict autostabilization in a case of neglected traumatic cervical spine injury, which is never been reported. Such patients do well with nonsurgical treatment, thus obviating need for extensive deformity correction.
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Performing the screw fixation from C3 to odontoid process in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome and type II odontoid fracture p. 277
Mustafa Ogden, Ulas Yuksel, Ibrahim Akkurt, Bulent Bakar
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_54_18  
A 56-year-old female patient was admitted with a history of pain during neck movements after cervical injury. Computerized tomography scan revealed type II odontoid fracture and fusion anomaly between C2 and C3 vertebrae. At surgery, the anteroinferior part of C2 vertebra corpus could not be reached; therefore, transodontoid screw was advanced from C3 vertebra toward odontoid process. At follow-up examination, the complaints of the patient had recovered, and fracture line was completely fused. Advancing screw from C3 to odontoid process via anterior cervical approach could be thought an alternative treatment option in the patient with short neck caused from vertebra fusion anomaly and/or obesity.
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Unprecedented complication of odontoid regeneration after transoral odontoidectomy p. 280
Manish Garg, MS Sridhar, Saurabh Verma, Jitendra Bhadoria
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_98_18  
Transoral odontoidectomy followed by occipitocervical fixation is a widely used approach to relieve ventral compressions at the craniovertebral junction. Despite the large amount of literature on this approach and its complications, odontoid process regeneration and causing the worsening of symptoms of brainstem dysfunction and upper cervical cord were not found in the English literature. We report the case of odontoid regeneration in a 12-year-old girl. She presented with torticollis and symptoms of brainstem dysfunction and upper cervical cord compression with syringohydromyelia and underwent transoral resection of dens and posterior occipitocervical fusion at the age of 7 years. Post surgery, clinically and radiologically, the resolution was evident till the age of 11 years when the child started to have relapse and worsening of the previous symptoms. The computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging shows regeneration of the odontoid process compressing the brain stem with an increase in syringohydromyelia. We suggest that there is a need for the removal of the complete odontoid process with periosteum and also beyond the dentocentral synchondrosis to prevent late recurrences of odontoid regeneration.
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Isolated enchondroma of the atlas p. 283
Necati Ucler
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_101_18  
Periosteal enchondromas located in the spine are rare. We reported an even more infrequent occurrence of a periosteal enchondroma in the cervical spine of a 19-year-old girl. During the operation, a giant (>8 cm × 5.5 cm × 5 cm) ossified periosteal enchondroma with involvement of posterior structures and muscles of the axis was resected. The pathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of enchondroid tissue with typical chondrocytes, confirming the diagnosis of periosteal enchondroma. Early identification of the initial lesion should be coupled with total surgical resection, as a definitive treatment, to prevent malignant transformation. Enchondromas grow in an expanding manner which makes easy total resection.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Giant cell glioblastoma with spinal and spinal leptomeningeal metastasis in a child: A rare presentation of a rare tumor p. 286
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
DOI:10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_97_18  
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