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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2017
Volume 8 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 163-293

Online since Wednesday, September 20, 2017

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Vertical spinal instability and cervical spondylosis: Is it focal or multisegmental? p. 163
Atul Goel
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Short neck, short head, short spine, and short body height – Hallmarks of basilar invagination p. 165
Atul Goel
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Combined anteroposterior fixation using a titanium cage versus solely posterior fixation for traumatic thoracolumbar fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis Highly accessed article p. 168
Arjen Johannes Smits, Meaghan Polack, Jaap Deunk, Frank Willem Bloemers
Study Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Objective: Additional anterior stabilization might prevent posterior implant failure, but over time, the disadvantageous of bone grafts have become evident. The objective of this systematic review was to compare risks and advantages of additional anterior stabilization with a titanium cage to solely posterior fixation for traumatic thoracolumbar fractures. Methods: An electronic search was performed in the literature from 1980 to March 2016. Studies comparing only posterior with anteroposterior fixation by means of a titanium cage were included in this study. Data extraction and Cochrane risk of bias assessment were done by two independent authors. In addition, the PRISMA statement was followed, and the GRADE approach was used to present results. Results: Of the 1584 studies, two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one retrospective cohort study were included in the meta-analysis. The RCTs reported evidence of high quality that anteroposterior stabilization maintained better kyphosis correction than posterior stabilization alone. However, these results were neutralized in the meta-analysis by the cohort study. Implant failure was reported by one study, in the posterior group. No differences in follow-up visual analog scale scores, neurologic improvement, and complications were found. Operation time, blood loss, and hospital stay all increased in the anteroposterior group. Conclusions: Patients with a highly comminuted or unstable fracture could benefit from combined anteroposterior stabilization with a titanium cage, for some evidence suggests this prevents loss of correction. However, large randomized studies still lack. There is a risk of cage subsidence, and increased perioperative risks have to be considered when choosing the optimal treatment.
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Influence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling on dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage p. 179
Toru Yamagata, Kentaro Naito, Masaki Yoshimura, Kenji Ohata, Toshihiro Takami
Background: Postoperative oropharyngeal complications such as dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery are some of the least discussed surgery-related complications. The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate the incidence and possible risk factors for 30-day postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Materials and Methods: This study included 152 consecutive patients who underwent 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage in our institutes. Surgery-related dysphagia early after surgery was analyzed based on hospital charts. Radiological evaluation of prevertebral soft tissue swelling (PSTS) was performed by comparing plain lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery with those after surgery. The percentage of PSTS (%PSTS) was defined by retropharyngeal soft tissue diameter divided by vertebral diameter. Positive %PSTS was determined when %PSTS exceeded its mean + 2 standard deviations. Results: Twelve patients (7.9%) demonstrated prolonged symptoms of dysphagia within 30-day postoperatively. All patients eventually demonstrated satisfactory or acceptable recovery late after surgery, except one case of hypoglossal nerve palsy. %PSTS was significantly highest early after surgery and returned to presurgical levels within 30 days after surgery. Statistical analysis suggested that the positive %PSTS at C3 or C4 level early after surgery was significantly associated with the occurrence of postoperative dysphagia. Conclusions: Although the possible reasons for postoperative dysphagia may not only be multifactorial but also be highly surgeon-dependent, such a complication is still underestimated and needs to be carefully resolved. %PSTS appeared to be easy and reliable index to judge the possible risk of postoperative dysphagia.
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Is there a correlation between the spinal instability neoplastic score and mechanical pain in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression? A prospective cohort study p. 187
Rodrigo AC Cavalcante, Yvens B Fernandes, Romulo AS Marques, Vinícius G Santos, Edésio Martins, Vladimir A Zaccariotti, João B Arruda, Claúdio E Tatsui, Andrei F Joaquim
Introduction: The decision for selecting patients for surgical treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is challenging even for experienced surgeons. Recently, the spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) has been proposed to help surgeons in the evaluation of spinal stability in the setting of spinal metastases. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between SINS and preoperative visual analog scale (VAS), as well as the pre- and post-operative association of the VAS and neurological function. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral cancer center. Seventy-nine patients with MSCC were surgically treated from June 2012 to March 2015. Pain status before and after surgery was assessed using VAS score, and neurological status was evaluated using the American Spine Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) before and after surgery. Pain was classified as VAS (0–4) none or mild pain; VAS (5–8) moderate pain; and VAS (9–10) as severe pain. Neurological function was scored as AIS A: Complete deficits, AIS B–D: Incomplete deficits, AIS E: Neurologically intact. SINS degrees were classified as 0–6-stable; 7–12 potentially unstable, and 13–18-unstable. Spearman's correlation coefficient test was utilized for correlation between pain and SINS; Chi-square association test was utilized for evaluating pre- and post-operative pain and AIS, as well as the association between SINS and tumor types. Results: A higher SINS correlates with severe mechanical pain preoperatively (ρ = 0.38, P = 0.001); surgical procedure improved neurological function (P = 0.0001), and decrease pain (P = 0.84). Finally, a higher SINS was also associated with osteolytic tumors (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The SINS correlates with mechanical pain. Surgery provides a significant improvement in pain and neurological status, especially in patients who presented higher SINS scores and some degree of preoperative neurological function.
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Preliminary experience with lumbar facet distraction and fixation as treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis p. 193
Giovanni Grasso, Alessandro Landi
Objectives: To assess the properties of facet fixation with the Facet Wedge system in patients affected by lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Summary of Background Data: Implant of intra-articular spacers is an emerging technique for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods: This study included forty patients (Group 1) with symptomatic LSS in whom intra-articular spacers have been implanted along with microdecompression (MD) of the neural structures. Group 1 has been compared with a homogeneous group of patients with LSS treated with MD without intra-articular spacers implant (Group 2). Clinical findings have been observed preoperatively and 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively using dedicated questionnaires (Zurich Claudication Questionnaire, visual analog scale, and Oswestry disability index). Results: One year following surgical treatment, 87% of the patients presented with good improvement of symptoms and 97% referred satisfaction for surgery. Overall, patients of Group 1 presented with significantly better clinical outcome when compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Intra-articular spacers showed significant and clinically meaningful improvements in pain and disability for up to 1 year. These findings need further studies and a longer follow-up.
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Atlantoaxial Langerhans cell histiocytosis radiographic characteristics and corresponding prognosis analysis p. 199
Lihua Zhang, Liang Jiang, Huishu Yuan, Zhongjun Liu, Xiaoguang Liu
Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) may affect atlas and axis, and there were very few published cases describing a characteristic of LCH of atlantoaxial. Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate the image manifestations of atlantoaxial LCH to improve the in-depth comprehension on it. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging in atlas and axis and prognosis was analyzed. Results: The study included 41 patients (average age 12.9 years and median age 8 years) diagnosed with LCH, with 75.6% under 15 years old. Eighty-four lesions of LCH were identified including 47 in the atlas and 37 in the axis. The osteolytic bone destructions in the atlas and axis were characterized, 22% accompanied by sclerotic margins. Thirteen patients had a compression fracture, 11 in the lateral mass of the atlas and 2 in the C2 vertebral body. Sixteen and three patients had atlantoaxial malalignment and dislocation, respectively. On T2-weighted images, 68.9% showed iso- or low-signal intensity, 27.6% showed hyperintensity signal, and 3.4% showed heterogeneous signal. On postcontrast images, 81.9% showed significant enhancement, 12.5% showed moderate enhancement, and 6.3% showed mild enhancement. CT reexamination of 14 patients indicated atlantoaxial bone destruction relatively repaired in 12 patients. Thirty-three patients were a follow-up, 81.8% had no significant symptoms and 18.2% with remaining symptoms. Conclusions: The atlas and axis were affected by LCH, mainly in children. The lateral mass was easily affected and compressed, destruction of the atlas and axis could lead to atlantoaxial joint instability. The prognosis was good in most of the patients.
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The size and shape of the foramen magnum in man p. 205
Matthew J Zdilla, Michelle L Russell, Kaitlyn N Bliss, Kelsey R Mangus, Aaron W Koons
Background: The foramen magnum (FM) has garnered broad interest across the disciplines of anthropology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and clinical sciences. Most studies regarding the structure of the FM in humans have been intrapopulation morphometric studies rather than interpopulation morphologic studies. The few studies assessing the morphology of the foramen have utilized ambiguous and subjective descriptors to describe foraminal shape and are, consequently, difficult to reproduce. Therefore, detailed study of FM shape among craniofacially and geographically diverse populations through reproducible methods is warranted. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess intersex and interpopulation differences in FM size and shape among diverse populations. Materials and Methods: The study analyzed 152 FMs of varied sex and race via traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Results and Conclusions: The study demonstrates that, within each distinct population, the size of the FM is significantly larger in males than in females; however, there are no significant differences in the shapes of the foramina between sexes. However, when comparing different populations to one another, there are significant differences with regard to both the size and shape of the FM. This study also presents a new model of FM ontogeny. Specifically, the growth occurring between the anterior and posterior foraminal boundaries before 5 years of age predicts the ultimate shape of the adult FM.
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Risk factors for 30-day outcomes in elective anterior versus posterior cervical fusion: A matched cohort analysis p. 222
John K Yue, Pavan S Upadhyayula, Hansen Deng, David C Sing, Joseph D Ciacci
Objective: Cervical spine fusion is the preferred treatment modality for a variety of degenerative and/or myelopathic disorders. Surgeons select between two approaches (anterior or posterior cervical fusion [ACF; PCF]) based on pathoanatomical features and spinal levels involved. Complications and outcome profiles between the approaches following elective surgery have not been systematically investigated. Methods: Adult patients undergoing elective ACF or PCF were extracted from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program years 2011–2014. Five hundred twenty-eight patients (264 ACF and 264 PCF) were matched 1:1 by age, sex, functional status, vertebral levels operated, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. Multivariable regression was performed by surgical approach for operation time, complications, hospital length of stay (HLOS), and discharge destination, controlling for body mass index and comorbidities. Mean differences (B), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results: Compared to ACF, PCF was associated with increased odds of blood transfusions >1 unit (OR = 4.31, 95% CI [1.18–15.75]; P = 0.027) and failure to discharge to home (OR = 3.68 [2.17–6.25]; P < 0.001), and increased mean HLOS (B = 1.72 days [1.19–2.26]; P < 0.001). No differences in operation time, other complications, or reoperation rates were found by surgical approach. Conclusions: In a matched cohort analysis by age, sex, functional and physical status, and vertebral levels, elective PCF is associated with increased HLOS and increased likelihood of failing to discharge to home compared to ACF without increased risk of 30-day complications. Increased blood transfusion volume is noted for patients undergoing PCF. Future prospective studies are warranted.
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The efficacy of sagittal cervical spine subtyping: Investigating radiological classification methods within 150 asymptomatic participants p. 231
Lee Daffin, Max C Stuelcken, Mark G L Sayers
Aims: The aim of this study is to (1) compare and contrast cervical subtype classification methods within an asymptomatic population, and (2) identify inter-methodological consistencies and describe examples of inconsistencies that have the potential to affect subtype classification and clinical decision-making. Methods: A total of 150 asymptomatic 18–30-year-old participants met the strict inclusion criteria. An erect neutral lateral radiograph was obtained using standard procedures. The Centroid, modified Takeshima/Herbst methods and the relative rotation angles in cases of nonagreement were used to determine subtype classifications. Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) was used to assess the level of agreement between the two methods. Results: Nonlordotic classifications represented 66% of the cohort. Subtype classification identified the cohort as, lordosis (51), straight (37), global kyphosis (30), sigmoidal (13), and reverse sigmoidal (RS) (19). Cohen's kappa coefficient indicated that there was only a moderate level of agreement between methods (κ = 0.531). Methodological agreement tended to be higher within the lordotic and global kyphotic subtypes whereas, straight, sigmoidal, and RS subtypes demonstrated less agreement. Conclusion: This is the first study of its type to compare and contrast cervical classification methods. Subtypes displaying predominantly extended or flexed segments demonstrated higher levels of agreement. Our findings highlight the need for establishing a standardized multi-method approach to classify sagittal cervical subtypes.
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Surgical treatment of bilateral nondisplaced isthmic lysis by interlaminar fixation device p. 239
Keyvan Mostofi, Reza Karimi Khouzani
Study Design: Spondylolysis is a defect in the portion of pars interarticularis. The latter affects approximately 6% of the population. It is caused by repetitive trauma in hyperextension. Low back pain is the most common symptom. Methods: We implanted interspinous process devices in 12 patients with isthmic lysis without spondylolisthesis for low back pain. The purpose of the surgery was to conduct a minimally invasive procedure. Results: In eight cases, patients became asymptomatic. In two cases, there has been a considerable improvement. In two cases, no change had been noted. Conclusion: This good result motivates us to consider this approach a part of therapeutic arsenal for some cases of spondylolysis.
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“Stealth cranioplasty:” A novel endeavor for symptomatic adult Chiari I patients with syringomyelia: Technical note, appraisal, and philosophical considerations p. 243
Asifur Rahman, Md. Sumon Rana, Paawan Bahadur Bhandari, Dewan Shamsul Asif, Abu Naim Wakil Uddin, Abu Saleh Mohammad Abu Obaida, Md. Atikur Rahman, Md. Shamsul Alam
Aim and Objective: In this article, we describe a novel technique of reconstruction of posterior fossa by cranioplasty with use of preshaped titanium mesh following posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for Chiari malformation type I (CMI) with syringomyelia (SM) in symptomatic adults. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients underwent limited PFD and expansive cranioplasty with preshaped titanium mesh, what we term as “Stealth Cranioplasty” (SCP), following arachnoid preserving duraplasty (APD) and hexagonal tenting of the duraplasty with the cranioplasty (HTDC) for the management of symptomatic adult CMI with SM. All these patients had syringes extending from 3 to >10 vertebral levels. Results: Seven male and four female symptomatic CMI adult patients, between age ranges of 22 and 44 years (mean 29.45 years), presented with different neurological symptoms related to CMI and SM for 6–84 months (mean 37.09 months). All the patients underwent PFD, APD followed by SCP and HTDC and were followed up for 7–54 months (mean 35.90 months). Of 11 patients, 8 patients improved according to the Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS) with score of 13–15 while 3 patients remained unchanged with CCOS of 12, and there was no worsening. There was no complication related to Chiari surgery in any of the patients. All the patients had good reestablishment of cisterna magna. Two patients had marked reduction of syrinx while eight patients had moderate-to-mild reduction and one patient had no change of syrinx. None of the patients needed redo surgery. Conclusion: SCP is an effective, fruitful, and cost-effective technique for the management of symptomatic adult CMI with SM. This technique has the advantages of preventing complications and recurrences in addition to the improvement of symptoms by addressing the basic pathology.
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A very rare spinal cord tumor primary spinal oligodendroglioma: A review of sixty cases in the literature p. 253
Askin Esen Hasturk, Emre Cemal Gokce, Cagri Elbir, Gulce Gel, Suat Canbay
Literature review. In this study, we evaluated a case of primary spinal oligodendroglioma (PSO) with a rare localization between L3 and S2, and also examined sixty cases in the literature in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics, and treatment planning. A case of PSO has been presented, and the relevant literature between 1931 and 2016 was reviewed. A total of 57 papers regarding PSO were found and utilized in this review. The main treatment options include radical surgical excision with neuromonitoring, followed by radiotherapy. Despite these treatment protocols, the relapse rate is high, and treatment does not significantly prolong survival. Oligodendrogliomas are rare among the primary spinal cord tumors. Oligodendrogliomas are predominantly found in the cervical spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, or junctions during childhood and adulthood. Extension to the sacral region, inferior to the Conus, is very rare. Furthermore, of the sixty cases in the literature, the case we present here is the first to be reported in this particular age group. These localizations usually occur in the pediatric age group and after relapses. While for a limited number of cases the oligodendroglioma initiates in the thoracic region and reaches as far as L2, we encountered a case of an oligodendroglioma within the range of L3 to S2. Clinical findings are observed in accordance with location, and magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for diagnosis.
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Surgical planning for cervical deformity based on a 3D model p. 263
Juan Barges-Coll, Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Sébastien Martiniere, John Michael Duff
The treatment of fixed cervical deformity is complex, but the principles guiding its correction remain the same as in deformity of other spinal regions, with the goal of deformity correction that results in a solid fusion with adequate decompression of the neural elements. In these challenging cases, osteotomies are necessary to mobilize the rigid spine and to obtain the desired correction, but they can be associated with increased risk of complications. Therefore, careful preoperative planning and a complete understanding of the anatomic variations allow patient-tailored approaches with and case specific techniques for the optimal and safe treatment of a variety of complex cervical deformities. We present a case report with a complex spinal deformity where a 3D model was used for surgical strategy that allowed us to “simulate” the osteotomies and get a better correction of the cervical deformity.
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A rare case of a vertebrojugular arteriovenous fistula: A case report and review of literature p. 268
Fanor Saavedra-Pozo, Juan Vicenty-Padilla, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado
Vertebrojugular fistulas have been described in the literature associated with blunt or penetrating injury and iatrogenic or spontaneous development. Its presentation may be broad and may include symptoms of radiculopathy, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, tinnitus, and bruit. However, so far, no direct cardiac complications had been reported. Here, we describe a case of an 86-year-old female who suffered a C5 vertebral fracture secondary to a ground-level fall that was initially treated conservatively due to the onset of new severe atrial fibrillation. However, the patient was later on taken to surgery due to progressive neurologic deterioration. Intraoperative complications led to the diagnosis of a vertebral-jugular fistula that was successfully embolized. The effective obliteration of the fistulae led to the recovery of both neurologic and cardiac symptoms.
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Nondysraphic cervicomedullary intramedullary lipoma p. 271
Sujeet Kumar Meher, Laxmi Narayan Tripathy, Harsh Jain, Sunandan Basu
Spinal cord lipomas are usually associated with spinal dysraphism and is most common in lumbosacral region. Spinal intradural lipoma is a rare condition accounting for less than 1% of spinal cord tumours and is most prevalent in cervicodorsal region. Intramedullary spinal cord lipoma of cervical spine not associated with spinal dysraphism is one of the rarest lesions. They usually present insidiously with slowly progressive myelopathic deficits. We present a case of nondysraphic intramedullary spinal cord lipoma with exophytic component and intracranial extension. A 30 year male patient presented with wasting of muscles of left shoulder and left forearm with resultant weakness for last two months and myelopathic signs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a T1 hyperintense , T2 hypointense lesion on the dorsal aspect of cervical spinal cord with intracranial extension and exophytic component. There was no contrast enhancement, fat suppression image indicated a lipoma. The patient underwent cervical laminectomy with foramen magnum decompression with subtotal resection of intramedullary lipoma. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of lipoma. Subtotal resection of intramedullary lipoma is a reasonable and acceptable surgical option considering the benign nature of lesion and high probability of neurological deterioration due to dense adhesion between lipoma and neural tissue.
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Acute spinal cord compression caused by atypical vertebral hemangioma p. 275
Salah Bellasri, Jamal Fatihi, Abderrahim Elktaibi, Abad Cherif El Asri
Vertebral hemangioma is common, benign lesion that occurs mostly in the body of vertebral bones and is mostly asymptomatic although they may occasionally extend into the posterior elements. An isolated location in the neural arch of vertebrae is extremely rare. An acute spinal cord compression by an exceptional hemangioma involving spinous process of the seventh thoracic vertebra and respecting vertebral body in a 40-year-old woman is reported. On magnetic resonance imaging of the spine, the lesion was hypointense on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weited image, and enhancing avidly, causing compression of spinal cord. Our case is exceptional by the rapidly character of symptom installation and by atypical and elective involvement of spinous process.
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Spontaneous regression of retro-odontoid post traumatic cicatrix following occipitocervical fixation p. 278
Priyank Sinha, Ming-Te Lee, Sasan Panbehchi, Ankur Saxena, Debasish Pal
This case report describes a patient who presented with myelopathy secondary to a large retro-odontoid post traumatic cicatrix. The objective of this study was to discuss the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, imaging, and surgical management of pseudoarthrosis tissue mass associated with odontoid nonunion. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) has been widely reported in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. AAS leads to repeated cycles of partial tear and repair of ligaments around the altantoaxial complex, resulting in the formation of periodontoid mass (pseudotumor). It is thought that formation of retro-odontoid post traumatic mass (cicatrix), in certain cases of odontoid fracture, is because of similar pathology. This is a retrospective review of case note. Here, the patient underwent posterior decompression through a C1–C2 laminectomy and occipitocervical (C0–C4) fusion with instrumentation, which resulted in dramatic improvement in his symptoms and spontaneous regression of retro-odontoid post traumatic cicatrix. We have described an interesting and a rare case of a large pseudoarthrosis tissue mass associated with odontoid nonunion, which regressed following stand-alone posterior instrumentation. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful of such cases of spontaneous regression of retro-odontoid post traumatic cicatrix following occipitocervical fixation have been described in literature, and our case adds to the growing list of such cases and may help in understanding the natural history of the disease process one day. Although rare, post traumatic cicatrix should be considered as a differential diagnosis of enhancing retro-odontoid mass, especially if there is any history of cervical spine trauma.
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Aarskog-Scott syndrome: An unusual cause of scoliosis p. 283
Kerim Sariyilmaz, Okan Ozkunt, Murat Korkmaz, Fatih Dikici, Unsal Domanic
A 16-year-old boy who had been diagnosed previously as Aarskog-Scott syndrome (AAS), referred to our clinic with shoulder asymmetry for 1 year. Results of spine examination showed a 52° right thoracic curve at T3-T11. Surgery was planned, and T1–L1 posterior instrumentation and fusion were performed. After surgery, satisfactory correction was achieved, and during 10 years follow-up, the patient had no complaints. AAS is a X-linked genetic disorder with facial, genital, and skeletal manifestations. Scoliosis is not reported as a typical finding of AAS, and there is no reported case in the English literature. Due to mutation affecting the developing skeleton tissue, spinal deformities may develop. In our case, concave side fusion was seen at the deformity. Although we do not know any specific pattern of the scoliotic deformity of this syndrome, surgical correction of the deformity can be difficult because of the premature fusion at these levels.
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Use of C2 vertebroplasty and stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of lytic metastasis of the odontoid process p. 285
Casey Alicen Hribar, Deb A Bhowmick
Improvements in cancer therapy have led to increased patient survival times in spite of metastatic spinal disease in many forms of cancer. Conventional treatment methods often employ radiotherapy with or without surgery depending on the neurological status, mechanical instability, and the extent of tumor. Percutaneous vertebroplasty as well as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have arisen as common modalities of treatment of spinal metastasis in which neurological compromise or spinal instability and deformity is not of significant concern. These treatments, when used in combination, have been shown to provide early pain relief and effective tumor control while avoiding surgical resection, fixation, and lengthy recovery times. We present a case unique in the literature for the use of this combination treatment for tumors of the C2 vertebral body. While limited in application to patients without overt atlantoaxial instability or significant spinal canal compromise, we believe it provides a significant benefit in decreasing morbidity and improving early adherence to systemic therapy.
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Idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation p. 288
Mazda K Turel, Joshua T Wewel, Mena G Kerolus, John E O'Toole
Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare and often missed cause of thoracic myelopathy. The clinical presentation and radiological appearance is inconsistent and commonly confused with a dorsal arachnoid cyst and often is a misdiagnosed entity. While ventral spinal cord herniation through a dural defect has been previously described, intravertebral herniation is a distinct entity and extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year old man with idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation and discuss the clinico-radiological presentation, pathophysiology and operative management along with a review the literature of this unusual entity.
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Hydatid disease of the spine: A rare case p. 291
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
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“Formation” of Chiari “malformation:” Nature's philosophical way of adaptation p. 291
Asifur Rahman
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