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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of dural grafts in Chiari decompression surgery: Review of the literature
AA Abla, T Link, D Fusco, DA Wilson, V.K.H. Sonntag
January-June 2010, 1(1):29-37
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65479  PMID:20890412
Background: Decompression of Chiari malformation is a common procedure in both pediatric and adult neurosurgery. Although the necessity for some bony removal is universally accepted, other aspects of Chiari surgery are the subject of debate. The most controversial points include the optimal amount of bony removal, the use of duraplasty (and the type of material), the need for subarachnoid dissection, and the need for tonsillar shrinkage. Material and Methods: We critically reviewed the literature to elucidate the risks and benefits of different graft types and to clarify optimal treatment options therein. Based on our search results, 108 relevant articles were identified. With specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, we noted three studies that directly compared two tlpes of dural substitutes in Chiari malformation surgery. Results: Our review did not support the superiority of either autologous or nonautologous grafts when duraplasty is employed. Our institutional experience, however, dictates that when the pericranium is available and of good quality, it should be utilized for duraplasty. It is non-immunogenic, inexpensive, and capable of creating a watertight closure with the dura. Conclusions: Discrepancies between the three comparative studies analyzed are likely attributable to increases in pericranial quality and thickness with maturity. Future randomized studies with large numbers and the power to resolve differences in the relatively low rates of complications in Chiari surgery are warranted.
  18 7,910 199
Combined transnasal and transoral endoscopic approaches to the craniovertebral junction
IH El-Sayed, J-C Wu, CP Ames, G Balamurali, PV Mummaneni
January-June 2010, 1(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65481  PMID:20890414
Objectives: To describe and evaluate a new technique of a combined endoscope-assisted transnasal and transoral approach to decompress the craniovertebral junction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort of patients requiring an anterior decompression at the craniovertebral junction over a 12-month period was studied. Eleven patients were identified and included in the study. Eight of the patients had an endoscopic approach [endonasal (2), endooral (2), and combined (4)]. Four of the 8 patients in the endoscopic group had a prior open transoral procedure at other institutions. These 8 patients were compared with a contemporary group of 3 patients who had an open, transoral-transpalatal approach. Charts, radiographic images, and pathologic diagnosis were reviewed. We evaluated the following issues: airway obstruction, dysphagia, velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), length of hospital stay (LOS), adequate decompression, and the need for revision surgery. Results: Adequate anterior decompression was achieved in all the patients. The endoscopic cohort had a reduced LOS (P = 0.014), reduced need for prolonged intubation/tracheotomy (P =0.024) and a trend toward reduced VPI (P = 0.061) when compared with the open surgery group. None of the patients required a revision surgery. Conclusion: Proper choice of endoscopic transnasal, transoral, or combined approaches allows anterior decompression at the craniovertebral junction, while avoiding the need to split the palate. A combined transnasal-transoral approach appears to reduce procedure-related morbidity compared with open, transoral, and transpalatal surgeries.
  16 3,210 114
REVIEW ARTICLE
Neurenteric cysts of the spine
JJ Savage, JN Casey, IT McNeill, JH Sherman
January-June 2010, 1(1):58-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65484  PMID:20890417
Neurenteric cysts account for 0.7-1.3% of spinal axis tumors. These rare lesions result from the inappropriate partitioning of the embryonic notochordal plate and presumptive endoderm during the third week of human development. Heterotopic rests of epithelium reminiscent of gastrointestinal and respiratory tissue lead to eventual formation of compressive cystic lesions of the pediatric and adult spine. Histopathological analysis of neurenteric tissue reveals a highly characteristic structure of columnar or cuboidal epithelium with or without cilia and mucus globules. Patients with symptomatic neurenteric cysts typically present in the second and third decades of life with size-dependent myelopathic and/or radicular signs. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are essential diagnostic tools for the delineation of cyst form and overlying osseous architecture. A variety of approaches have been employed in the treatment of neurenteric cysts each with a goal of total surgical resection. Although long-term outcome analyses are limited, data available indicate that surgical intervention in the case of neurenteric cysts results in a high frequency of resolution of neurological deficit with minimal morbidity. However, recurrence rates as high as 37% have been reported with incomplete resection secondary to factors such as cyst adhesion to surrounding structure and unclear dissection planes. Here we present a systematic review of English language literature from January 1966 to December 2009 utilizing MEDLINE with the following search terminology: neurenteric cyst, enterogenous cyst, spinal cord tumor, spinal dysraphism, intraspinal cyst, intramedullary cyst, and intradural cyst. In addition, the references of publications returned from the MEDLINE search criteria were surveyed in order to examine other pertinent reports.
  13 5,958 228
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Gamma knife radiosurgery of meningiomas involving the foramen magnum
RM Starke, JH Nguyen, DL Reames, J Rainey, JP Sheehan
January-June 2010, 1(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65478  PMID:20890411
Background: Foramen magnum meningiomas represent a challenging clinical entity. Although resection is performed for those with a mass effect, complete resection is not always feasible. For some patients, stereotactic radiosurgery may be used as the primary treatment modality. We evaluatedthe long-term outcome of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of patientswith a foramen magnum meningioma. Materials and Methods: Between 1991 and 2005, 222 patients with a meningioma in the posterior fossa were treated with GKRS at the University of Virginia. Of these patients, 5 had meningiomas involving the foramen magnum. At the time of GKRS, the median age of the patients was 60 years (range, 51-78). Three patients were treated with radiosurgery following an initial resection and 2 were treated with upfront radiosurgery. The patients were assessed clinically and radiologically at routine intervals following GKRS. Results: The median tumor volume was 6.8 cc (range 1.9-17 cc). The GKRS tumor received a marginal dose of 12 Gy (range 10-15), and the median number of isocenters was 5 (range 3-19). The mean follow-up was 6 years (range 4-13). One lesion increased in size following GKRS requiring a second treatment, resulting in size stabilization. At the time of the last follow-up, all meningiomas had either demonstrated no growth (n = 4) or reduction in size (n = 1). No patients experienced post-radiotherapy complications. Conclusions: GKRS affords a high rate of tumor control and preservation of neurologic function for patients with foramen magnum meningiomas. Further study of its role in the neurosurgical management of such patients seems warranted.
  10 4,947 131
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tuberculosis of spine
Vinod Agrawal, PR Patgaonkar, SP Nagariya
July-December 2010, 1(2):74-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77671  PMID:21572628
Tuberculosis of the spine is one of the most common spine pathology in India. Over last 4 decades a lot has changed in the diagnosis, medical treatment and surgical procedures to treat this disorder. Further developments in diagnosis using molecular genetic techniques, more effective antibiotics and more aggressive surgical protocols have become essential with emergence of multidrug resistant TB. Surgical procedures such as single stage anterior and posterior stabilization, extrapleral dorsal spine anterior stabilization and endoscopic thoracoscopic surgeries have reduced the mortality and morbidity of the surgical procedures. is rapidly progressing. It is a challenge to treat MDR-TB Spine with late onset paraplegia and progressive deformity. Physicians must treat tuberculosis of spine on the basis of Culture and sensitivity.
  10 9,237 17
CASE REPORTS
Supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme with spinal metastases
Abhidha Shah, Rakesh Redhu, Trimurti Nadkarni, Atul Goel
July-December 2010, 1(2):126-129
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77678  PMID:21572635
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Metastasis of intracranial glioblastoma via the cerebrospinal fluid to the spine is a rare occurrence. We present two cases of glioblastoma multiforme with spinal leptomeningeal spread who presented with back pain and paraparesis.
  8 5,006 4
EDITORIAL
Facet distraction spacers for treatment of degenerative disease of the spine: Rationale and an alternative hypothesis of spinal degeneration
Atul Goel
July-December 2010, 1(2):65-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77669  PMID:21572626
  7 2,319 7
REVIEW ARTICLE
Primary spinal epidural lymphomas
Goutham Cugati, Manish Singh, Anil Pande, Ravi Ramamurthi, Mahalakshmi Balasubramanyam, Sumer K Sethi, Ajai Kumar Singh
January-June 2011, 2(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.85307  PMID:22013369
An epidural location for lymphoma is observed in 0.1-6.5% of all the lymphomas. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL) is a subset of lymphomas, where there are no other recognizable sites of lymphomas at the time of diagnosis. The incidence of this subset of lymphomas is much less. It, however, is increasingly diagnosed, due to the increased use of more sensitive imaging modalities. For the electronic search, Pubmed was used to identify journals that enlisted and enumerated PSEL from 1961 to January 2011. The following combination of terms: "primary," "spinal," "epidural," and "lymphoma" were used. The most significant articles and their bibliographies were analyzed by the authors. The symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnostic workup, histopathology, treatment, and outcome have been analyzed in a systematic manner
  6 10,317 22
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Intra-operative computer navigation guided cervical pedicle screw insertion in thirty-three complex cervical spine deformities
S Rajasekaran, P.R.M. Kanna, T.A.P. Shetty
January-June 2010, 1(1):38-43
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65480  PMID:20890413
Background: Cervical pedicle screw fixation is challenging due to the small osseous morphometrics and the close proximity of neurovascular elements. Computer navigation has been reported to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. There are very few studies assessing its efficacy in the presence of deformity. Also cervical pedicle screw insertion in children has not been described before. We evaluated the safety and accuracy of Iso-C 3D-navigated pedicle screws in the deformed cervical spine. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients including 15 children formed the study group. One hundred and forty-five cervical pedicle screws were inserted using Iso-C 3D-based computer navigation in patients undergoing cervical spine stabilization for craniovertebral junction anomalies, cervico-thoracic deformities and cervical instabilities due to trauma, post-surgery and degenerative disorders. The accuracy and containment of screw placement was assessed from postoperative computerized tomography scans. Results: One hundred and thirty (89.7%) screws were well contained inside the pedicles. Nine (6.1%) Type A and six (4.2%) Type B pedicle breaches were observed. In 136 levels, the screws were inserted in the classical description of pedicle screw application and in nine deformed vertebra, the screws were inserted in a non-classical fashion, taking purchase of the best bone stock. None of them had a critical breach. No patient had any neurovascular complications. Conclusion: Iso-C navigation improves the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw insertion and is not only successful in achieving secure pedicle fixation but also in identifying the best available bone stock for three-column bone fixation in altered anatomy. The advantages conferred by cervical pedicle screws can be extended to the pediatric population also.
  5 2,616 140
Classification system of foramen magnum meningiomas
M Bruneau, B George
January-June 2010, 1(1):10-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65476  PMID:20890409
Background: Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) are challenging tumors. We report a classification system based on our experience of 107 tumors. Materials and Methods: The three main algorithm criteria included the compartment of development of the tumor, its dural insertion, and its relation to the vertebral artery. Results: The compartment of development was most of the time intradural (101/107, 94.4%) and less frequently extradural (3/107, 2.8%) or both intra-extradural. (3/107, 2.8%). When developed inside the intradural compartment, FMMs were subdivided into posterior (6/104, 5.8%), lateral (57/104, 54.8%), and anterior (41/104, 39.4%), if their insertion was respectively posterior to the dentate ligament, anterior to the dentate ligament without or with extension over the midline. Anterior and lateral intradural lesions grew below (77/98, 78.6%), above (16/98, 16.3%), or on both sides (5/98, 5.1%) of the VA. Only three cases of extraduralFMMs (3/107, 2.8%) were resected by an antero-lateral approach while all the other ones (104/107, 97.2%) were removed successfully by a postero-lateral approach. Lower cranial nerves were displaced superiorly in FMM growing below the VA but their position cannot be anticipated in other situations. Conclusions: This classification system helps for defining the best surgical approach but also for anticipating the position of the lower cranial nerves and therefore for reducing the surgical morbidity.
  5 4,318 260
CASE REPORTS
Dorsal spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma
Darshana Sanghvi, Mihir Munshi, Bijal Kulkarni, Abhaya Kumar
July-December 2010, 1(2):122-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77677  PMID:21572634
A 61-year-old female patient presented with diffuse pain in the dorsal region of the back of 3 months duration. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an extramedullary, extradural space occupative lesion on the right side of the spinal canal from D5 to D7 vertebral levels. The mass was well marginated and there was no bone involvement. Compression of the adjacent thecal sac was observed, with displacement to the left side. Radiological differential diagnosis included nerve sheath tumor and meningioma. The patient underwent D6 hemilaminectomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, the tumor was purely extradural in location with mild extension into the right foramina. No attachment to the nerves or dura was found. Total excision of the extradural compressing mass was possible as there were preserved planes all around. Histopathology revealed cavernous hemangioma. As illustrated in our case, purely epidural hemangiomas, although uncommon, ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural soft tissue masses. Findings that may help to differentiate this lesion from the ubiquitous disk prolapse, more common meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors are its ovoid shape, uniform T2 hyperintense signal and lack of anatomic connection with the neighboring intervertebral disk or the exiting nerve root. Entirely extradural lesions with no bone involvement are rare and represent about 12% of all intraspinal hemangiomas.
  4 8,608 17
Intramedullary enterogenous cyst of the conus medullaris presenting as lower limb pain
Srikant Balasubramaniam, Devendra K Tyagi, Hemant V Sawant
January-June 2011, 2(1):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.85314  PMID:22013376
Enterogenous cysts account for 0.7-1.3% of spinal axis tumors. Cervical and thoracic segments are most often affected and they are rare in the lumbar region. Intramedullary variant which comprises less than 5% of enterogenous cysts are densely adherent to the surrounding tissue and preclude total excision. Partial excision is associated with recurrence and is the most common unfavorable outcome in these cysts. Hence, such patients need follow-up with serial imaging. We describe a case of conus medullaris enterogenous cyst presenting as lower limb pain. Due to dense adhesion of the cyst to the surrounding neural tissue, subtotal excision was done. The patient is symptom and tumor free at one year interval. We describe our case, discuss its uniqueness and review the literature on this rare but difficult to cure tumor.
  4 2,778 8
EDITORIAL
'Only fixation' as rationale treatment for spinal canal stenosis
Atul Goel
July-December 2011, 2(2):55-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100049  PMID:23125488
  4 2,149 19
Facet distraction-arthrodesis technique: Can it revolutionize spinal stabilization methods?
Atul Goel
January-June 2011, 2(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.85306  PMID:22013368
  4 3,201 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diagnostic and prognostic role of MRI in spinal trauma, its comparison and correlation with clinical profile and neurological outcome, according to ASIA impairment scale
Umesh C Parashari, Sachin Khanduri, Samarjit Bhadury, Neera Kohli, Anit Parihar, Ragini Singh, RN Srivastava, Deepika Upadhyay
January-June 2011, 2(1):17-26
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.85309  PMID:22013371
Aims and objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in patients with acute and chronic spinal trauma and to compare and correlate the MRI findings with those of patients' clinical profile and neurological outcome according to ASIA impairment scale to assess prognostic and clinical value of MRI. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients of spinal trauma formed the study group in a prospective fashion. The patients undergoing MR imaging and magnetic resonance images were analyzed and correlated with findings on neurological examination according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale (AIS) at the time of MRI examination and subsequently at sub-acute interval to assess neurological outcome. Statistical Analysis : Sample profile was described in terms of 95% confidence limit and proportion. To describe strength of association between extent of spinal cord injury and outcome, odd's ratio, bivariate and multi variant analysis, was used. Pearson's chi square (χ) 2 statistics was applied to test the association between two categorical variables. Data were analyzed using statistical software package, STATA 9.2 and the difference was considered to be significant if 'P' value was <0.05. Observation and Results: The cord edema without hemorrhage was the most common MR finding (41.5%). The others were sizable focus of hemorrhage within the cord (33%), epidural hematoma (5.0%), and normal cord (26%). Majority of MR findings correlated well with clinical profile of the patient according to ASIA impairment scale. This study demonstrated that patients with presence of sizable focus of haemorrhage had larger cord edema and more severe grade of initial ASIA impairment scale( AIS) with poor recovery at follow up (P=0.032).Improvement in upper extremity was more than lower extremity. Severe cord compression was also associated with poor neurological outcome; however it was not statistically significant (P=0.149). Conclusions: With this study the authors concluded that various MRI findings in acute spinal cord injury correlated well with the initial clinical findings and on follow-up according to ASIA impairment scale. MRI is useful for initial diagnosis of acute spinal cord injury and its prognostication for predicting neurological recovery.
  4 12,194 13
REVIEW ARTICLES
Malignant cord compression: A critical appraisal of prognostic factors predicting functional outcome after surgical treatment
Cornelia Putz, Joost J van Middendorp, Martin H Pouw, Babak Moradi, Rüdiger Rupp, Norbert Weidner, Carl Hans Fürstenberg
July-December 2010, 1(2):67-73
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77670  PMID:21572627
Objectives: Advanced tumor disease and metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) are two entities with a high impact on patients' quality of life. However, prognostic factors on the outcome after primary decompressive surgery are less well-defined and not yet standardized. The aim of this review was to identify prognostic variables that predict functional or ambulatory outcomes in surgically treated patients with symptomatic MSCC. Materials and Methods: We conducted MEDLINE database searches using relevant keywords in order to identify abstracts referring to prognostic factors on ambulatory outcomes in surgically treated MSCC patients. Details of all selected articles were assembled and the rates of ambulation were stratified. Results: Evidence from five retrospective comparative trials and one observational prospective study summarizes different prognostic factors with a positive or negative influence on postoperative ambulatory status. Ambulatory patients maintaining ambulation status after decompression of the spinal cord constituted 62.1%. The overall rate of MSCC patients losing the ability to ambulate was 7.5% compared to 23.5 % who regained ambulation. Preoperative ambulation status, time to surgery, compression fracture and individual health status seem to be the most relevant prognostic factors for ambulatory outcome. Conclusions: There is a lack of standardized prognostic tools which allow predicting outcome in surgically treated patients. A quantitative score consisting of reliable prognostic tools is essential to predict loss and/or regain of ambulation and requires validation in future prospective clinical trials.
  4 3,480 10
CASE REPORTS
Fibrous dysplasia in axis treated with vertebroplasty
Kadir Kotil, Emine Ozyuvaci
July-December 2010, 1(2):118-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77676  PMID:21572633
Vertebroplasty of the axis is a challenging procedure, and little is known about its therapeutic outcome. Cervical fibrous dysplasia with a distinct cyst is a rare entity and few cases have been reported in the literature. A 55-year-old man with fibrous dysplasia of axis presented with severe neck pain and left arm since six months. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an expansile, destructive lesion involving the axis, and no spinal cord. He was submitted to retropharyngeal surgery and the lesion was fulled by vertebroplasty. Microscopic examination was consistent with the diagnosis of monostotic fibrous dysplasia. After the surgery no recurrence was observed. The patient had remarkable improvement in clinical relief of neck pain at 1-year follow-up. Although there are descriptions of vertebral fibrous dysplasia, this is the 13th case of monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the cervical spine, and the 3rd case of the axis described in the literature. The unique case who had treated with ope vertebroplasty.
  3 4,173 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinico-radiological profile of indirect neural decompression using cage or auto graft as interbody construct in posterior lumbar interbody fusion in spondylolisthesis: Which is better?
QR Abdul, MS Qayum, MV Saradhi, MK Panigrahi, V Sreedhar
January-June 2011, 2(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.85308  PMID:22013370
Study design: A prospective clinical study of posterior lumbar interbody fusion in grade I and II degenerative spondylolisthesis was conducted between Mar 2007 and Aug 2008. Purpose: The objective was to assess the clinicoradiological profile of structural v/s nonstructural graft on intervertebral disc height and its consequences on the low back pain (LBP) assessed by Visual analog score (VAS) score and oswestry disability index (ODI) . This study involved 28 patients. Inclusion criteria: Age of 30-70 years, symptomatic patient with disturbed Activities of daily living (ADL), single-level L4/L5 or L5/S1 grade I or grade II degenerative spondylolisthesis. Exclusion criteria: Patients with osteoporosis, recent spondylodiscitis, subchondral sclerosis, visual and cognitive impairment and all other types of spondylolisthesis. All the patients underwent short-segment posterior fixation using CD2 or M8 instrumentation, laminectomy discectomy, reduction and distraction of the involved vertebral space. In 53.5% (n = 15) of the patients, snugly fitted local bone chips were used while in 46.4% (n = 13) of the patients, cage was used. Among the cage group, titanium cage was used in nine (32.1%) and PEEK cages were used in four (14.2%) patients. In one patient, a unilateral PEEK cage was used. The mean follow-up period was 24 months. Among the 28 patients, 67.8% (n = 19) were females and 32.14% (n = 9) were males. 68.24% (n = 18) had L4/L5 and 35.71% (n = 10) had L5/S1 spondylolisthesis. 39.28% (n = 11) were of grade I and 60.71% (n = 17) were of grade II spondylolisthesis. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant correlation (P < 0.012 and P < 0.027) between the change in disc height achieved and the improvement in VAS score in both the graft group and the cage group. The increment in disc height and VAS score was significantly better in the cage group (2 mm ± SD vis-a-vis 7.2 [88%]) than the graft group (1.2 mm ± SD vis-a-vis 5 [62 %]).
  3 5,075 11
Focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord: Imaging diagnosis and surgical resolution
Hiroki Morisako, Toshihiro Takami, Toru Yamagata, Isao Chokyu, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi, Kenji Ohata
July-December 2010, 1(2):100-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77673  PMID:21572630
Background: Although adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord can cause progressive symptoms associated with syringomyelia or myelomalacia, its surgical resolution based on the imaging diagnosis is not well characterized. This study aims to describe the use of imaging for the diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord and its surgical resolution using microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients with symptomatic syringomyelia or myelomalacia caused by focal adhesive arachnoiditis underwent microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Comprehensive imaging evaluation using constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelographic MR imaging using true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) sequences was included before surgery to determine the surgical indication. Results: In all four patients a focal adhesion was identified at the cervical or thoracic level of the spinal cord, a consequence of infection or trauma. Three patients showed modest or minor improvement in neurological function, and one patient was unchanged after surgery. The syringomyelia or myelomalacia resolved after surgery and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period, which ranged from 5 months to 30 months. Conclusions: MRI diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis is critical to determine the surgical indication. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis appears to be a straightforward method for stabilizing the progressive symptoms, though the procedure is technically demanding.
  3 10,425 19
Dorsal approaches to intradural extramedullary tumors of the craniovertebral junction
D Refai, JH Shin, C Iannotti, EC Benzel
January-June 2010, 1(1):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65482  PMID:20890415
Tumors of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) pose significant challenges to cranial and spine surgeons. Familiarity with the complex anatomy and avoidance of injury to neurologic and vascular structures are essential to success. Multiple surgical approaches to address lesions at the CVJ have been promoted, including ventral and dorsal-based trajectories. However, optimal selection of the surgical vector to manage the pathology requires a firm understanding of the limitations and advantages of each approach. The selection of the best surgical trajectory must include several factors, such as obtaining the optimal exposure of the region of interest, avoiding injury to critical neurologic or vascular structures, identification of normal anatomical landmarks, the familiarity and comfort level of the surgeon to the approach, and the need for fixation. This review article focuses on dorsal approaches to the CVJ and the advantages and limitations in managing intradural extramedullary tumors.
  3 2,875 148
CASE REPORTS
Atlantooccipital dislocation in motor vehicle side impact, derivation of the mechanism of injury, and implications for early diagnosis
Kevin M Smith, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar, Shekar N Kurpad, Dennis J Maiman
July-December 2010, 1(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77675  PMID:21572632
Numerous reports of atlantooccipital dislocations (AODs) have been described in frontal impacts and vehicle versus pedestrian collisions. Reports of survival after AOD in conjunction with side impacts have infrequently been reported in the literature. The objective of this study is to present a case of an AOD from a side impact vehicle collision, and deduce the mechanism of injury. A clinical and biomechanical reconstruction of the collision was performed to investigate the mechanism of the dislocation. A 51-year-old female was traveling in a four-door sedan and sustained a side impact collision with a compact pickup truck. At the time of extrication, the patient was neurologically intact with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. After admittance to the hospital, the patient developed a decline in respiratory status, right mild hemiparesis, and left sixth-nerve palsy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) reconstructions indicated a craniocervical dislocation. Surgical fixation was performed and all extra-axial hemorrhaging was evacuated. At discharge, the patient was neurologically intact on the left side, had right mild hemiparesis, left sixth-nerve palsy, and minor dysarthria. Survival rates of AODs have recently been increasing. Morbidity is still more prevalent, however. Due to the variety of symptoms that accompany AODs and the inconsistency of diagnostic imaging techniques, a thorough history of the etiology may lead to increased clinical suspicion of this injury and further raise survival rates.
  2 8,543 15
EDITORIAL
Instability and basilar invagination
Atul Goel
January-June 2012, 3(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110115  PMID:23741120
  2 2,100 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Multilevel decompressive laminectomy and transpedicular instrumented fusion for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: A minimum follow-up of 3 years
Kadir Kotil, Emine Ozyuvaci
January-June 2011, 2(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.85310  PMID:22013372
Objective: Cervical laminectomies with transpedicular insertion technique is known to be a biomechanically stronger method in cervical pathologies. However, its frequency of use is low in the routine practice, as the pedicle is thin and risk of neurovascular damage is high. In this study, we emphasize the results of cervical laminectomies with transpedicular fixation using fluoroscopy in degenerative cervical spine disorder. Materials and Methods: Postoperative malposition of the transpedicular screws of the 70 pedicles of the 10 patients we operated due to degenerative stenosis in the cervical region, were investigated. Fixation was performed between C3 and C7, and we used resected lamina bone chips for fusion. Clinical indicators included age, gender, neurologic status, surgical indication, and number of levels stabilized. Dominant vertebral artery of all the patients was evaluated with Doppler ultrasonography. Preoperative and postoperative Nurick grade of each patient was documented. Results: No patients experienced neurovascular injury as a result of pedicle screw placement. Two patients had screw malposition, which did not require reoperation due to minor breaking. Most patients had 32-mm screws placed. Postoperative computed tomography scanning showed no compromise of the foramen transversarium. A total of 70 pedicle screws were placed. Good bony fusion was observed in all patients. At follow-up, 9/10 (90%) patients had improved in their Nurick grades. The cases were followed-up for an average of 35.7 months (30-37 months). Conclusions: Use of the cervical pedicular fixation (CPF) provides a very strong three-column stabilization but also carries vascular injury without nerve damage. Laminectomies technique may reduce the risk of malposition due to visualization of the spinal canal. CPF can be performed in a one-stage posterior procedure. This technique yielded good fusion rate without complications and can be considered as a good alternative compared other techniques.
  2 8,863 12
Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 as an adjunct for instrumented posterior arthrodesis in the occipital cervical region: An analysis of safety, efficacy, and dosing
D Kojo Hamilton, Justin S Smith, Davis L Reames, Brian J Williams, Christopher I Shaffrey
July-December 2010, 1(2):107-112
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.77674  PMID:21572631
Background: There have been few reports on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 in posterior spine. However, no study has investigated the dosing, safety, and efficacy of its use in the posterior atlantoaxial, and/or craniovertebral junction. Recent case report of the cytokine-mediated inflammatory reaction, following off label use of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for cervical fusion, particularly in complex cases, has increased concern about complications associated with the product. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy, and dosing of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for instrumented posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction arthrodesis. Materials and Methods: We included all patients treated by the senior author that included posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction instrumented fusion using rhBMP-2 from 2003 to 2008 with a minimum two year follow-up. Diagnosis, levels fused, rhBMP-2 dose, complications, and fusion were assessed. Results: Twenty three patients with a mean age of 60.9 years (range 4 - 89 years) and an average follow-up of 45 months (range 27 to 84 months) met inclusion criteria. The indications for surgery included, atlantoaxial instability (n = 16), basilar invagination (n = 6), and kyphoscoliosis (n = 1). The specific pathologic diagnosis included type 2 dens fracture (n = 7), complex C1 and C2 ring fracture (n = 2), chordoma (n = 2), degenerative/osteoporosis (n = 3), rheumatoid disease (n = 8), and pseudogout (n = 1). The average rhBMP-2 dose was 2.38 mg/level, with a total of 76 levels treated (average 3.3 levels, SD= 1.4 levels). There were no complications. During the most recent follow-up, all patients had achieved fusion. Conclusions: In a series of patients with complex pathology and/or rheumatoid arthritis, 100% fusion rate was achieved with adjunct use of rhBMP-2, with a safe and effective average rhBMP-2 dose of 2.38 mg per level.
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Biomechanical properties of human thoracic spine disc segments
BD Stemper, D Board, N Yoganandan, CE Wolfla
January-June 2010, 1(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.65477  PMID:20890410
Background : The objective was to determine the age-dependent compressive and tensile properties of female and male thoracic spine segments using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). Materials and Methods : Forty-eight thoracic disc segments at T4-5, T6-7, T8-9, and T10-11 levels from 12 PMHS T3-T11 spinal columns were divided into groups A and B based on specimen age and loaded in compression and tension. Stiffness and elastic modulus were computed. Stiffness was defined as the slope in the linear region of the force-displacement response. Elastic modulus was defined as the slope of the stress strain curve. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significant differences (P<0.05) in the disc cross-sectional area, stiffness, and elastic modulus based on gender, spinal level, and group. Results : Specimen ages in group A (28 ± 8 years) were significantly lower than in group B (70 ± 7 years). Male discs had significantly greater area (7.2 ± 2.0 sq cm) than female discs (5.9 ± 1.8 sq cm). Tensile and compressive stiffness values were significantly different between the two age groups, but not between gender and level. Specimens in group A had greater tensile (486 ± 108 N/mm) and compressive (3300 ± 642 N/mm) stiffness values compared to group B specimens (tension: 397 ± 124 N/mm, compression: 2527 ± 734 N/mm). Tensile and compressive elastic modulus values depended upon age group and gender, but not on level. Group A specimens had significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.9 ± 0.8 MPa, 19.5 ± 4.1 MPa) than group B specimens (1.7 ± 0.6 MPa, 10.6 ± 3.4 MPa). Female specimens showed significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.6 ± 1.0 MPa, 16.6 ± 6.4 MPa) than male specimens (2.0 ± 0.7 MPa, 13.7 ± 5.0 MPa). Discussion: Using the two groups to represent "young" and "old" specimens, this study showed that the mechanical response decreases in older specimens, and the decrease is greater in compressive than distractive properties. While the decrease is expected, the relative change between the two modes of loading has not been reported. Another conclusion from the study is that the mechanical properties depend on gender, although not as decisive due to sample size.
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* Source: CrossRef
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