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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| January-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 5, 2013

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Instability and basilar invagination
Atul Goel
January-June 2012, 3(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110115  PMID:23741120
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Primary calcified rhabdoid meningioma of the cranio-cervical junction: A case report and review of literature
Mohammad Abolfotoh, Daryoush Tavanaiepour, Changki Hong, Ian F Dunn, Hart lidov, Ossama Al-Mefty
January-June 2012, 3(1):32-37
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110127  PMID:23741128
Rhabdoid meningioma (RM) is a relatively new, rare, and aggressive subtype of meningioma, classified as Grade III malignancy in 2000, 2007 versions of WHO classification of the central nervous system. We reviewed the data available from all published cases of RMs. To the best of our knowledge, there are more than 100 published cases of RMs; none have documented extensive calcification or origin from the cranio cervical junction. We report the first case of a totally calcified (stony mass), primary RM, at the cranio cervical junction. Also, we highlighted the role of the transcondylar approach to achieve microscopic total removal of such a challenging lesion. A 37 year old female, allergic to erythromycin, presented with 5 years of progressive right upper extremity numbness and weakness, right facial numbness, and occipital pain. Imaging demonstrated a large calcified mass at the right posterior-lateral margin of the cranio cervical junction, encasing the right vertebral artery and right PICA loop. Patient underwent microscopic total resection of the lesion. Pathological diagnosis was confirmed as RM with atypical features. Subsequently, the patient received postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on the tumor bed, and close follow up imaging showed no recurrence 2 years after surgery. We report the first case of a primary RM originating from the cranial cervical junction; also, it is the first case to present with extensive calcification in this morphological subtype. We also conclude that RM has now become a feature of newly diagnosed cases and not only a disease of recurrent cases as it was thought in the past. Since RMs are typically considered aggressive, total surgical resection with close follow up and postoperative adjuvant radiation should be considered. However, the adjuvant therapy of each separate case of RM should be tailored according to its particular histopathologic profile.
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Large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst: A case report and review of literature
Souvagya Panigrahi, Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra, Srikant Das, Sunil Kumar Patra, Pratap Chandra Satpathy
January-June 2012, 3(1):16-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110119  PMID:23741124
Presence of an arachnoid cyst at craniospinal junction is not very common. This is a very rare anatomic site, with only seven other cases reported in the literature. We report a case of large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and cranial nerve palsy. A 39-year-old male presented with 8-month history of neck pain, headache, vomiting, visual disturbances, diminished taste sensation, and numbness of face. He had bilateral papilledema on ophthalmoscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst extending down to the lower border of C5 vertebra. Posterior decompression was done through C5 laminectomy. He made a full recovery and was asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up examination. The clinical features, diagnosis, and management of these rare craniospinal arachnoid cysts are discussed.
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Delayed anterior cervical plate dislodgement with pharyngeal wall perforation and oral extrusion of cervical plate screw after 8 years: A very rare complication
Ravindranath Kapu, Manish Singh, Anil Pande, Matabushi Chakravarthy Vasudevan, Ravi Ramamurthi
January-June 2012, 3(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110121  PMID:23741125
We report a patient with congenital anomaly of cervical spine, who presented with clinical features suggestive of cervical compressive spondylotic myelopathy. He underwent C3 median corpectomy, graft placement, and stabilization from C2 to C4 vertebral bodies. Postoperative period was uneventful and he improved in his symptoms. Eight years later, he presented with a difficulty in swallowing and occasional regurgitation of feeds of 2 months duration and oral extrusion of screw while having food. On oral examination, there was a defect in the posterior pharyngeal wall through which the upper end of plate with intact self-locking screw and socket of missed fixation screw was seen. This was confirmed on X-ray cervical spine. He underwent removal of the plate system and was fed through nasogastric tube and managed with appropriate antibiotics. This case is presented to report a very rare complication of anterior cervical plate fixation in the form of very late-onset dislodgement, migration of anterior cervical plate, and oral extrusion of screw through perforated posterior pharyngeal wall.
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Pediatric intervertebral disc calcification: A no touch lesion
Monika Garg, Sanyal Kumar, Bhawna Satija, Rajat Gupta
January-June 2012, 3(1):23-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110123  PMID:23741126
Intervertebral disc calcification (IVDC), though rare, remains an important differential of pediatric spinal pain. A 7-year-old boy presented with sudden-onset severe neck pain and restricted movements. There was no definite history of trauma or infection. Imaging of the cervical spine showed calcification of the intervertebral disc at C2-3 level, with significant posterior protrusion into the spinal canal causing compression of the cervical spinal cord. The child was kept on conservative management. The calcification and posterior protrusion showed near-complete resolution on 3-month follow-up. This case report emphasizes that childhood IVDC is a benign condition which commonly resolves spontaneously, without any surgical intervention and neurological sequelae.
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Syringomyelia as a presenting feature of shunt dysfunction: Implications for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia
Natarajan Muthukumar
January-June 2012, 3(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110125  PMID:23741127
The pathogenesis of syringomyelia continues to be an enigma. The patency of the central canal and its role in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia continues to elicit controversy. The case reported here provides an opportunity to retest some of the hypotheses of syringomyelia. A 33 year old female presented with sensory disturbances over the left upper extremity and trunk and was diagnosed to have panventriculomegaly with communicating syringomyelia. She was initially treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. As there was no change in her neurological status following shunt, this was followed by foramen magnum decompression with excision of an arachnoid veil covering the fourth ventricular outlet. She had clinical and radiological improvement after foramen magnum decompression. Five months later she had reappearance of the symptoms of syringomyelia and was found to have shunt dysfunction and holocord syrinx. She improved following shunt revision. This case is being reported to highlight the following points: 1. In patients with communicating syringomyelia and hydrocephalus, shunt dysfunction can present with symptoms of syringomyelia without the classical clinical features of shunt dysfunction, 2. In patients with communicating syringomyelia, the central canal of the spinal cord acts as an "exhaust valve" for the ventricular system, and, 3. studies about the patency of the central canal are reviewed in the context of this case and the role of the central canal in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia is reviewed.
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Management of low back pain in computer users: A multidisciplinary approach
Kiran M Shete, Prachi Suryawanshi, Neha Gandhi
January-June 2012, 3(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110117  PMID:23741122
Background: Low back pain is a very common phenomenon in computer users. More than 80% people using computers for more than 4 h complain of back pain. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of multidisciplinary treatment approach and conventional treatment approach amongst computer users. Materials and Methods: A prospective interventional study was carried out at a private spine clinic amongst the computer users with the complaint of low back pain. The study participants were randomly distributed in two groups. The first group comprised the study participants treated by conventional approach and the second group was treated by multidisciplinary approach. Primary outcomes analyzed were pain intensity, sick leave availed, and quality of life. Statistical analysis was done using proportions, unpaired "t" test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Totally 44 study participants were randomly assigned to groups I and II, and each group had 22 study participants. Intensity of pain was reduced significantly in the group treated by multidisciplinary approach (t = 5.718; P = 0.0001). Similarly only 4 (19.19%) of the study participants of the group treated by multidisciplinary approach availed sick leave due to low back pain, while 14 (63.63%) study participants availed sick leave in the other group (P = 0.02). The quality of life amongst the study participants treated by multidisciplinary approach was significantly improved compared to the group treated by conventional approach (t = 7.037; P = 0.0001). Conclusion and Recommendation: The multidisciplinary treatment approach was better than the conventional treatment approach in low back pain cases when some factors like pain and quality of life were assessed. The multidisciplinary approach for treatment of low back pain should be promoted over conventional approach. Larger studies are required to confirm the findings in different settings.
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Mechanism and patterns of cervical spine fractures-dislocations in vertebral artery injury
Pankaj Gupta, Atin Kumar, Shivanand Gamangatti
January-June 2012, 3(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110118  PMID:23741123
Purpose: To identify the fracture patterns and mechanism of injury, based on subaxial cervical spine injury classification system (SLIC), on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) of cervical spine predictive of vertebral artery injury (VAI). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 320 patients who were admitted with cervical spine injury in our level I regional trauma center over a period of two years (April 2010 to April 2012). Diagnosis of VAI was based on hyperintensity replacing the flow void on a T2-weighted axial image. NCCT images of the selected 43 patients with MRI diagnosis of VAI were then assessed for the pattern of injury. The cervical spinal injuries were classified into those involving the C1 and C2 and subaxial spine. For the latter, SLIC was used. Results: A total of 47 VAI were analyzed in 43 patients. Only one patient with VAI on MRI had no detectable abnormality on NCCT. C1 and C2 injuries were found in one and six patients respectively. In subaxial injuries, the most common mechanism of injury was distraction (37.5%) with facet dislocation with or without fracture representing the most common pattern of injury (55%). C5 was the single most common affected vertebral level. Extension to foramen transversarium was present in 20 (42.5%) cases. Conclusion: CT represents a robust screening tool for patients with VAI. VAI should be suspected in patients with facet dislocation with or without fractures, foramina transversarium fractures and C1-C3 fractures, especially type III odontoid fractures and distraction mechanism of injury.
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Keraunoparalysis: What a neurosurgeon should know about it?
Ashish Kumar, Vinjamuri Srinivas, Barada P Sahu
January-June 2012, 3(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.110116  PMID:23741121
Keraunoparalysis or transient weakness in limbs following a lightning strike has been well described in literature. Many times, neurosurgeons encounter patients with paraparesis secondary to trauma in the setting of a lightning strike. In these cases, it becomes imperative to find out the true cause behind such weakness in lower limbs because the prognosis differs significantly depending on the etiology. We report a case of keraunoparalysis affecting both lower limbs in a 50-year-old male, where he recovered within 48 hours of the impact. As far as our knowledge is concerned, this is the first case of keraunoparalysis reported from India. We also review the available literature and discuss the physics of lightning, its mechanism, other clinical presentations, and management strategy in the light of our case. These patients must be investigated for other possible causes of paraparesis secondary to trauma and keraunoparalysis should rather be a diagnosis of exclusion, only to be confirmed on imageology. Awareness regarding similar cases will make neurosurgeons notice this entity early, avoiding unnecessary investigation, and hence they will be able to prognosticate in the most efficient manner.
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