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   2014| April-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 20, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Cervical injuries scored according to the Subaxial Injury Classification system: An analysis of the literature
Andrei F Joaquim, Alpesh A Patel, Alexander R Vaccaro
April-June 2014, 5(2):65-70
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139200  PMID:25210335
Introduction: The Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) system and severity score has been developed to help surgeons in the decision-making process of treatment of subaxial cervical spine injuries. A detailed description of all potential scored injures of the SLIC is lacking. Materials and Methods: We performed a systematic review in the PubMed database from 2007 to 2014 to describe the relationship between the scored injuries in the SLIC and their eventual treatment according to the system score. Results: Patients with an SLIC of 1-3 points (conservative treatment) are neurologically intact with the spinous process, laminar or small facet fractures. Patients with compression and burst fractures who are neurologically intact are also treated nonsurgically. Patients with an SLIC of 4 points may have an incomplete spinal cord injury such as a central cord syndrome, compression injuries with incomplete neurologic deficits and burst fractures with complete neurologic deficits. SLIC of 5-10 points includes distraction and rotational injuries, traumatic disc herniation in the setting of a neurological deficit and burst fractures with an incomplete neurologic deficit. Conclusion: The SLIC injury severity score can help surgeons guide fracture treatment. Knowledge of the potential scored injures and their relationships with the SLIC are of paramount importance for spine surgeons who treated subaxial cervical spine injuries.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anatomic study of the occipital condyle and its surgical implications in transcondylar approach
Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur, Supriya Padmashali, Chandni Gupta, Antony S Dsouza
April-June 2014, 5(2):71-77
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139201  PMID:25210336
Background: Craniovertebral surgeries require the anatomical knowledge of craniovertebral junction. The human occipital condyle (OC) is unique bony structure connecting the cranium and the vertebral column. A lateral approach like transcondylar approach (TA) requires understanding of the relationships between the OC, jugular tubercle, and hypoglossal canal. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyze the morphological variations in OCs of dry adult human skull. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 142 OC of 71 adult human dry skulls (55 males and 16 females). Morphometric parameters such as length, width, thickness, intercondylar distances, and the distances from the OC to the foramen magnum, hypoglossal canal and jugular foramen were measured. In addition, the different locations of the hypoglossal canal orifices in relation to the OC and different shapes of the OC were also noted. Results: The average length, width and height of the OC were found to be 2.2, 1.1 and 0.9 cm. The anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were 2.1 and 3.9 cm, respectively. Maximum and minimum bicondylar distances were 4.5 and 2.6 cm, respectively. The intra-cranial orifice of the hypoglossal canal was found to be present in middle 1/3 rd in all skulls (100%), and extra-cranial orifice of the hypoglossal canal was found to be in anterior 1/3 rd (98%) in relation to OC. The oval shaped OC (22.5%) was the most predominant type of OC observed in these skulls. Conclusion: Occipital condyle is likely to have variations with respect to shape, length, width and its orientation. Therefore, knowledge of the variations in OC along with careful radiological analysis may help in safe TAs during skull base surgery.
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CASE REPORTS
Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly
Tevfik Yilmaz, Yahya Turan, Ismail Gulsen, Sedat Dalbayrak
April-June 2014, 5(2):99-101
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139211  PMID:25210343
Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Basilar invagination: Surgical results
Andrei F Joaquim, Enrico Ghizoni, Leonardo A Giacomini, Helder Tedeschi, Alpesh A Patel
April-June 2014, 5(2):78-84
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139202  PMID:25210337
Introduction: Basilar invagination (BI) is a congenital craniocervical junction (CCJ) anomaly represented by a prolapsed spine into the skull-base that can result in severe neurological impairment. Materials and Methods: In this paper, we retrospective evaluate the surgical treatment of 26 patients surgically treated for symptomatic BI. BI was classified according to instability and neural abnormalities findings. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Nόrick grade system. Results: A total of 26 patients were included in this paper. Their age ranged from 15 to 67 years old (mean 38). Of which, 10 patients were male (38%) and 16 (62%) were female. All patients had some degree of tonsillar herniation, with 25 patients treated with foramen magnum decompression. Nine patients required a craniocervical fixation. Six patients had undergone prior surgery and required a new surgical procedure for progression of neurological symptoms associated with new compression or instability. Most of patients with neurological symptoms secondary to brainstem compression had some improvement during the follow-up. There was mortality in this series, 1 month after surgery, associated with a late removal of the tracheal cannula. Conclusions: Management of BI requires can provide improvements in neurological outcomes, but requires analysis of the neural and bony anatomy of the CCJ, as well as occult instability. The complexity and heterogeneous presentation requires attention to occult instability on examination and attention to airway problems secondary to concomitant facial malformations.
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EDITORIAL
Facetal alignment: Basis of an alternative Goel's classification of basilar invagination
Atul Goel
April-June 2014, 5(2):59-64
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139199  PMID:25210334
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PRACTITIONER SECTION
C1-2 posterior arthrodesis technique with a left segmental and right transarticular fixation. A hybrid novel (Kotil) technique
Kadir Kotil, Murat Muslumanoglu
April-June 2014, 5(2):102-105
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139213  PMID:25210344
Introduction: The most commonly used techniques for C1-C2 posterior arthrodesis are Goel and Magerl fixation techniques. Due to the anatomical variations of the region, the prior determination of the surgical technique might be hard. Right side Magerl, left side Goel's C1-C2 posterior arthrodesis case is presented as a new surgical combination technique used due to anatomical difficulties. Materials and Methods: Posterior C1-C2 arthrodesis operation was indicated for a 56-year-old female patient for the treatment of atlanto-axial subluxation caused by os odontoideum. First it was fixed from the nondominant arterial side (right vertebral artery) with Magerl (transarticular) technique. The left side was not suitable for the anatomical transarticular fixation, and the contralateral Goel fixation technique (segmental) was performed. Eventually, right side transarticular left side segmental fixation techniques were combined in one patient for the first time and C1-C2 fusion combination technique was presented. Results: Both Goel and Magerl techniques of C1-C2 posterior fusion techniques were successfully used simultaneously. The operation was initiated with Magerl technique with one screw on the nondominant side. The contralateral side was not suitable for Magerl technique therefore we changed to Goel's technique. Although, fluoroscopy was used 3 times as much during the introduction of the Drill with Magerl technique, twice as much operative time was spent during hemostasis and bleeding, preparation of the C1 entry point, and the reconstruction of polyaxial screws for Goel technique. No neurovascular complications were occurred during both procedures. Discussion: Combination of two C1-C2 posterior fusion techniques, Goel and Magerl, in suitable cases caused by anatomical or other reasons appears to be an alternative surgical procedure that protects the patient from complications. For a collection of better data, other studies that include large numbers of patients with high evidential value should be conducted.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Double insurance transfacetal screws for lumbar spinal stabilization
Atul Goel, Aimee A Goel, Savni R Satoskar, Pooja H Mehta
April-June 2014, 5(2):85-87
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139203  PMID:25210338
Aim: The authors report experience with 14 cases where two screws or ''double insurance'' screws were used for transfacetal fixation of each joint for stabilization of the lumbar spinal segment. The anatomical subtleties of the technique of insertion of screws are elaborated. Materials and Methods: During the period March 2011 to June 2014, 14 patients having lumbar spinal segmental instability related to lumbar canal stenosis were treated by insertion of two screws into each articular assembly by transfacetal technique. After a wide surgical exposure, the articular cartilage was denuded and bone chips were impacted into the joint cavity. For screw insertion in an appropriate angulation, the spinous process was sectioned at its base. The screws (2.8 mm in diameter and 18 mm in length) were inserted into the substance of the medial or inferior articular facet of the rostral vertebra via the lateral limit of the lamina approximately 6-8 mm away from the edge of the articular cavity. The screws were inserted 3 mm below the superior edge and 5 mm above the inferior edge of the medial (inferior) facets and directed laterally and traversed through the articular cavity into the lateral (superior) articular facet of the caudal vertebra toward and into the region of junction of base of transverse process and of the pedicle. During the period of follow-up all treated spinal levels showed firm bone fusion. There was no complication related to insertion of the screws. There was no incidence of screw misplacement, displacementor implant rejection. Conclusions: Screw insertion into the firm and largely cortical bones of facets of lumbar spine can provide robust fixation and firm stabilization of the spinal segment. The large size of the facets provides an opportunity to insert two screws at each spinal segment. The firm and cortical bone material and absence on any neural or vascular structure in the course of the screw traverse provides strength and safety to the process.
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CASE REPORTS
Spontaneous emphysematous osteomyelitis of spine detected by computed tomography: Report of two cases
Senthil Kumar Aiyappan, Upasana Ranga, Saveetha Veeraiyan
April-June 2014, 5(2):90-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139207  PMID:25210340
We hereby report two cases of spontaneous emphysematous osteomyelitis of spine caused by gas forming organisms in diabetic patients, which were diagnosed using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging with one case managed successfully. These cases highlight the role of CT in diagnosis of gas forming spinal infections, especially in diabetic patients. Early and aggressive management is required in those cases to avoid mortality.
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Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine
Raghvendra V Ramdasi, Trimurti D Nadkarni, Naina A Goel
April-June 2014, 5(2):95-98
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139209  PMID:25210342
A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented.
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Goel's Teflon sponge internal shunt for anterior spinal arachnoid cyst
Raghvendra Ramdasi, Abhidha Shah
April-June 2014, 5(2):88-89
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139205  PMID:25210339
We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with progressive quadriparesis and bowel-bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed anteriorly located arachnoid cyst in the cervicodorsal region. Following marsupialization of the cyst, an internal Teflon sponge shunt (Goel's shunt) was done that extended from the cyst cavity to the subarchnoid space. The patient improved dramatically in his symptoms. The physical nature of the teflon sponge and its usefulness as an internal shunt are discussed.
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LETTER TO EDITOR
Only fixation for lumbar canal stenosis
Sim Sai Tin, Viroj Wiwanitkit
April-June 2014, 5(2):106-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139216  PMID:25210345
  1,185 11 -
CASE REPORTS
Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine
Sanjiv Huzurbazar, Sunil Nahata, Parag S Nahata
April-June 2014, 5(2):93-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.139208  PMID:25210341
Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.
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