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   2019| April-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 16, 2019

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Torticollis and rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation: A clinical review
Atul Goel
April-June 2019, 10(2):77-87
Rotatory atlantoaxial instability can manifest as an acute episode following subtle or minor injury or even following a gentle tap on head in young children and can manifest as a painless deformity of the head. Goel technique of direct surgical opening of the atlantoaxial facet joint, manual manipulation of the facets can lead to reduction of rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation and recovery from torticollis. Torticollis can be a protective natural phenomenon in response to atlantoaxial instability and related basilar invagination. Only atlantoaxial fixation can lead to immediate postoperative reduction of torticollis. Spasmodic torticollis related to muscle hyperactivity is unrelated to atlantoaxial instability.
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A limited unilateral transpedicular approach for anterior decompression of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in elderly and high-risk patients
Khalid Alsaleh, Amjad Alduhaish
April-June 2019, 10(2):88-93
Background: Surgical treatment for elderly patients with thoracolumbar (TL) kyphosis and spinal cord (SC) compression presents significant challenges due to compression location, the amount of deformity, and patient's medical status might not permit full correction of the deformity. In this series, we present a surgical approach that provides adequate decompression without the risks associated with a pedicle subtraction osteotomy/posterior vertebral column resection or an anterior corpectomy. Methods: Three patients presented with TL kyphosis and progressive neurologic symptoms. All had acute weakness; none were ambulatory. SC was compressed over the apex of kyphosis, and for some, there was spinal stenosis at the proximal junction of the TL spine. The surgical technique involved unilateral resection of the pars, pedicles, the posterior one-third of the lateral wall of the vertebral body, decancellation of the impinging kyphus, and finally resection of the posterior vertebral body wall compressing the SC followed by instrumentation and fusion two levels above and below the fused segments. Results: All patients survived the procedure and left the hospital after 10–22 days. Estimated blood loss was 653 ml. No deep infections occurred. One patient developed acute tubular necrosis but recovered fully. The other two showed improvement of one Frankel grade and were independent in the final follow-up. One patient developed acute tubular necrosis but recovered fully yet his neurologic status was unchaged. The other two showed improvement of one Frankel grade and were independent in the final follow-up. Conclusion: The procedure described presents a compromise that fits the more elderly patient that might not be able to tolerate major deformity correction and at the same time provides similar results in the short and medium term to more extensive procedures.
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Is the term degenerative “spinal canal stenosis” a misnomer?
Atul Goel
April-June 2019, 10(2):75-76
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Posterior occiput-cervical fixation for metastasis to upper cervical spine
Tarush Rustagi, Hazem Mashaly, Ehud Mendel
April-June 2019, 10(2):119-126
Background: Metastasis to craniocervical area may result in instability manifesting as disabling pain, cranial nerve dysfunction, paralysis, or even death. Stabilization is required to prevent complications. Nonoperative treatment modalities are ineffective in providing stability and adequate pain relief. We present our experience of diagnosis, presentation, and surgical management for metastatic tumors to the upper cervical spine (UCS). Methods: Single-center single-surgeon database of consecutively operated posterior occiput-cervical fusion for metastasis to UCS was reviewed from 2007 to 2016. Demographics, clinical, and surgical data were collected through chart review. Pain scores based on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and other radiological data were noted. Kaplan–Meier curve was used for survival analysis. Clinical outcomes and complications were recorded. Results: A total of 29 patients (17 females/12 males) had the mean age of 56.7 ± 13.5 (24–82). Predominant metastasis included from the breast in 9 (31.03%) cases, followed by renal in 5, melanoma in 4, and 3 each from lung and colon. Axis was involved in 24 cases (C2 body in 21, pedicle in 8 cases). Atlas was involved in 9 cases (lateral mass in 8 cases and arch in 3 cases) and occiput was involved in three cases. Average Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score was 10 ± 2.3 (7–14). Mild cord compression was seen in 7 cases. Fusion extended from occiput to C4 fusion (n = 23), C5 (n = 5), and C6 (n = 1). Average blood loss was 364.8 ± 252.1 ml and operative time was 235 ± 51.9 min. Average length of stay was 7 ± 2.8 days (3–15). VAS improved from 8.3 ± 1.5 to 1 ± 1.1 (P < 0.001). C2 angulation corrected from 2.1° ±5.3° (0°–17°) to 0.5° ±1.2° (P = 0.045). Three patients each developed cardiopulmonary complications and deep infection. The average survival was 14.5 ± 15.1 (0.15–50) months. Conclusion: C2 body is the most common site of metastasis. Occiput-cervical fusion for unstable upper cervical metastasis offers a good palliative treatment for pain relief and improved quality of life.
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Morphometry of organization of middle meningeal artery through the analysis of bony canal in human's skull: A clinico-anatomical and embryological insight
Thittamaranahalli Muguregowda Honnegowda, Vineeth Dineshan, Ashwini Kumar
April-June 2019, 10(2):127-130
Background: Middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the largest branch of the maxillary artery supplying meninges of the cranial cavity. The complexity of MMA development gives many opportunities for anatomical variation. Besides, the variant MMA can be easily injured when dealing with fractures of the base of the skull, epidural hematomas, and bypass procedures. Although various aberrant origins of the MMA have been documented in the literature, there is a lack of detailed morphometric aspects of this important arterial segment. Thus, in this study, we investigated the anatomical organization of the MMA through the bony canal measurements from human skulls to improve surgical results. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five adult dry skulls were investigated. Angle of the main trunk, length of the main trunk, angle between the frontal and parietal branches, length of the frontal branch, length of the parietal branch, and length of the bony tunnel formed by the frontal branch were measured bilaterally. Results: In the present study, we found significant differences between the parameters such as length of frontal (P = 0.034) and parietal (P = 0.023) branches and length of bony tunnel (P = 0.045) of right and left sides, but there was no significant difference found in the rest of the parameters. Conclusions: Morphometry of the bony canal of MMA shall be important for safely expose and preserve the artery during craniotomy with careful drilling and shall be useful for those who have interest in this anatomical site.
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Prevention of lumbar reherniation by the intraoperative use of a radiofrequency bipolar device: A case–control study
Giovanni Grasso, Fabio Torregrossa, Alessandro Landi
April-June 2019, 10(2):94-99
Objective: The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. Although many studies have investigated factors that may increase the reherniation risk, few are agreed upon all. It has been suggested that limited nucleus removal is associated with higher reherniation risk, while more aggressive nucleus removal can result in increased disc degeneration. Here, we assessed the efficacy of a coblation-assisted microdiscectomy in adult patients undergoing single-level disc surgery. Methods: We prospectively compared the reherniation rate in 75 patients (Group 1) undergoing single-level lumbar disc surgery completed with the radiofrequency bipolar system Aquamantys® (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) to that of a historical control group (n = 75) matched for variables related to herniation level and characteristics (Group 2). Patients were followed up to 4 years. Reherniations were assessed, pain and function were monitored throughout, and imaging was performed at annual follow-up. Results: The overall symptomatic reherniation rate was 4%. In particular, one case (1.3%) was observed in Group 1 and five (6.7%) in Group 2 (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging identified a total of 4 (2.7%) asymptomatic reherniations at 12 months, 6 (4%) at 24 and 36 months, and 7 (4.7%) at 48 months. Overall, Group 1 contained one (1.3%) asymptomatic reherniation case, while six (8%) were observed in Group 2 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The low reherniation rate in patients treated by the coblation-assisted microdiscectomy suggests that this technique may reduce the reherniation risk. Clinical outcomes for pain and function at 4 years follow-up compared favorably with literature data. Randomized controlled trial could confirm these results.
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Over 70° thoracic idiopathic scoliosis: Results with screws or hybrid constructs
Pasquale Cinnella, Alessandro Rava, Antonio Abed Mahagna, Federico Fusini, Alessandro Masse, Massimo Girardo
April-June 2019, 10(2):108-113
Background: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. High degrees curve can be treated with the anterior, posterior, or combined anterior–posterior approach. Contrarily to the anterior approach, the posterior one is widely used nowadays for its good correction outcomes and relatively low-complication rate. Materials and Methods: We evaluated retrospectively 27 patients, treated with posterior approach. Patients were divided into two groups, namely pedicle screws group (PSG) and hybrid group (pedicle screws + sublaminar bands). Radiographic measurements, including thoracic and lumbar Cobb° measurements of primary and secondary curves, coronal balance and sagittal balance, kyphosis and lordosis, curve flexibility, first and last vertebra included in the arthrodesis, and implant density were evaluated. Clinical patients' satisfaction was also evaluated with Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) 24 questionnaire. Results: Considering both groups, on preoperative X-rays, the average primary scoliotic curve angle was 83.56° ± 10.96° (range 70°–112°), whereas the global flexibility was 64° ± 7.63 (range 46°–72°). The curves were classified following the Lenke classification: 17 Type 1, 2 Type 2, and 8 Type 3. The primary curve resulted to be well corrected in both groups. In T0, the groups were homogeneous, but in T1 and follow-up, PSG stated a better mean value. No other significative differences can be found between groups for all other items (P > 0.05). Clinical results of SRS 24 were excellent in both groups. Conclusions: The posterior approach proved to be an excellent technique for obtaining good clinical and radiographic results if the surgeon adopts the third-generation high-density implants. Level of Evidence: III.
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Posterior instrumented fusion surgery for adult spinal deformity: Correction rate and total balance
Toru Yamagata, Herve Chataigner, Pierre-Marie Longis, Toshihiro Takami, Joël Delecrin
April-June 2019, 10(2):100-107
Background: The primary radiological goal of surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is the restoration of lumbar lordosis (LL). Radiological parameters were analyzed to determine the surgical indications for ASD using posterior side-loading spinal instrumentation system. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 31 patients of ASD who underwent posterior instrumented fusion surgery. Imaging parameters included spinal tilt angle (STA), LL, and thoracic kyphosis (TK). The ideal LL was estimated based on the normal value. Results: Of 16 patients with sagittal imbalance, 10 patients demonstrated sagittal balance postoperatively. All six patients with frontal imbalance showed frontal balance postoperatively. STA improvement well correlated with change of LL. On univariate analysis, preoperative TK was significantly associated with preoperative sagittal imbalance and postoperative lack of LL with postoperative sagittal imbalance. Conclusions: The surgical concept of ASD focusing on correction of LL was demonstrated. Although the surgery of ASD is still challenging, posterior instrumented fusion surgery using posterior side-loading system may be well applied for mild or moderate ASD without hyper-TK. The posterior side-loading system is practical and can be one of the surgical choices.
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Cervical rotation before and after hinge-door cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy
Sachin A Borkar, Ravi Sreenivasan, Ravi Sharma, Sumit Sinha, S Leve Joseph, Ajay Garg, Shashank Sharad Kale
April-June 2019, 10(2):114-118
Background: Hinge-Door Cervical laminoplasty is commonly performed procedure in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Most available studies have established restriction of flexion and extension motion post laminoplasty but the literature on post-laminoplasty axial rotation is sparse. Objective: To study the axial neck rotation on either side following hinge door cervical laminoplasty. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy planned for cervical laminoplasty were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative radiological data was recorded for each patient and analysed by an experienced neuroradiologist. The clinical and radiological follow-up was recorded at 6 months post surgery. All patients underwent standard hinge door C3-C6 laminoplasty preserving the muscle attachments to C2 and C7 vertebra. Results: There were 13 men and 7 women with a mean age of 60.5 years, age range 58-70 years. The mean preop C1 C2 rotation was 46.5 degrees and mean post-operative C1-C2 rotation was 44.3 degrees. The average subaxial cervical spine rotation was 11.66 degrees preoperatively and 12.47 degrees postoperatively. The global cervical spine rotation was 80.95 degrees preoperatively and 76.82 degrees postoperatively. There is no significant change in segmental, subaxial and global cervical spine rotation following hinge door C3-C6 laminoplasty preserving the muscle attachments to C2 and C7 vertebra. Conclusion: Cervical laminoplasty preserves cervical ROM and is a motion-preserving surgery as far as axial rotation is concerned.
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