Home | About JCVJS | Editorial board | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Login 
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
Search Articles   
Advanced search   
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 140-147

Cervical fusion for degenerative disease: A comprehensive cost analysis of hospital complications in the United States from 2002 to 2014

1 Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California; Brain and Spinal Injury Center, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA
2 Brain and Spinal Injury Center, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA
3 Brain and Spinal Injury Center, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA; Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
4 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Hansen Deng
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 1, Room 101, San Francisco 94132, CA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_62_18

Rights and Permissions

Purpose: Recent data suggest great variability in costs for surgical hospitalization for spinal surgery. However, the magnitude of expenditures attributable to complications is unknown. The purpose of this study is to describe cost of care associated with surgical and medical complications after cervical spine surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study utilizing the National Inpatient Sample years 2002–2014 was conducted. A weighted sample of 901,508 adults undergoing elective cervical fusion for degenerative indications was extracted using diagnostic and procedure codes. Twelve categories of major complications were identified, and patient/hospital variables were evaluated as predictors of the overall reimbursed cost using multivariate regression. Mean differences (B) and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Results: The mean age was 52.2 ± 11.4 years, with 5.2% of patients experiencing a complication. Mean overall increase in inflation-adjusted cost associated with complication was $16,435 ± 10,358, varying significantly by type of complication, surgical approach, and number of levels fused. The most common complications and their attributed costs were dysphagia (1.6%, B = $2624 [2476–2771], P < 0.001), pulmonary complications (1.0%, B = $9334 [9110–9558], P < 0.001), and device-related complications (0.9%, B = $3125 [2927–3324], P < 0.001). The costliest complications were infection (0.1%, B = $25359 [24723–25994], P < 0.001), thromboembolism (0.1%, B = $17480 [16808–18153], P < 0.001), and neurological complications (0.2%, B = $10098 [9629–10567], P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although complications are rare after elective cervical fusion, they are associated with dramatically increase costs of care as high as $25,359 in the setting of postoperative infection. Improved understanding of the economic magnitude of complications may help guide efforts in reducing health care spending and improving perioperative care.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded14    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal