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   2016| January-March  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 17, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Upright magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine: Back pain and radiculopathy
Ha Son Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Saman Shabani, Jamie Baisden, Christopher Wolfla, Glenn Paskoff, Barry Shender, Brian Stemper
January-March 2016, 7(1):31-37
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176619  PMID:27041883
Background: Lumbar back pain and radiculopathy are common diagnoses. Unfortunately, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical symptoms do not necessarily correlate in the lumbar spine. With upright imaging, disc pathologies or foraminal stenosis may become more salient, leading to improvements in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Seventeen adults (10 asymptomatic and 7 symptomatic volunteers) provided their informed consent and participated in the study. A 0.6T upright MRI scan was performed on each adult in the seated position. Parameters were obtained from the L2/3 level to the L5/S1 level including those pertaining to the foramen [cross-sectional area (CSA), height, mid-disc width, width, thickness of ligamentum flavum], disc (bulge, height, width), vertebral body (height and width), and alignment (lordosis angle, wedge angle, lumbosacral angle). Each parameter was compared based on the spinal level and volunteer group using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). Bonferroni post hoc analysis was used to assess the differences between individual spinal levels. Results: Mid-disc width accounted for 56% of maximum foramen width in symptomatic volunteers and over 63% in asymptomatic volunteers. Disc bulge was 48% greater in symptomatic volunteers compared to asymptomatic volunteers. CSA was generally smaller in symptomatic volunteers compared to asymptomatic volunteers, particularly at the L4-L5 and L5-S1 spinal levels. Thickness of ligamentum flavum (TLF) generally increased from the cranial to caudal spinal levels where the L4-L5 and L5-S1 spinal levels were significantly thicker than the L1-L2 spinal level. Conclusions: The data implied that upright MRI could be a useful diagnostic option, as it can delineate pertinent differences between symptomatic volunteers and asymptomatic volunteers, especially with respect to foraminal geometry.
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Evaluation the efficiency of cervical orthoses on cervical fracture: A review of literature
Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Mostafa Kamali, Francis Fatoye
January-March 2016, 7(1):13-19
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176611  PMID:27041880
Background: Various methods have been used to stabilize the vertebra in cervical fractures, including the use of various orthoses and surgery. However, it is not cleared which type of orthosis is more suitable for the subjects with cervical fractures to best immobilize the vertebra and to decrease the associated side effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of various orthoses based on the available literature. Materials and Methods: A search was done in some databases include PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, Embasco, and Google Scholar. The search was done with some key words such as: Cervical spine injuries; odontoid fractures; hangman's fractures; axis fracture; axis, atlas, cervical fractures; trauma; neck fracture; neck injury in combination with cervical orthoses. The quality of the studies was evaluated by use of Downs and Black assessment and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for original research and review articles, respectively. Results: Based on the aforementioned key words, 25 papers were selected. The quality of the studies varies 10-24. Most of the studies were on the use of the halo vest orthosis, its side effects and also on complications associated with various orthoses. Discussion: Halo orthoses provide a high degree of restriction and immobilization; however, there are some side effects associated with this orthosis, including swallowing, pin loosening, and infection. It should be emphasized that other types of orthoses fewer complications, with reasonable outputs on motion restrictions.
  3,746 26 -
Posterolateral instrumented fusion with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: A randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up
Mohammad Reza Etemadifar, Abdollah Hadi, Mehran Feizi Masouleh
January-March 2016, 7(1):43-49
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176623  PMID:27041885
Background: Spondylolisthesis is a common cause of surgery in patients with lower back pain. Although posterolateral fusion and pedicle screw fixation are a relatively common treatment method for the treatment of spondylolisthesis, controversy exists about the necessity of adding interbody fusion to posterolateral fusion. The aim of our study was to assess the functional disability, pain, and complications in patients with spondylolisthesis treated by posterolateral instrumented fusion (PLF) with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: From February 2007 to February 2011, 50 adult patients with spondylolisthesis were randomly assigned to be treated with PLF or PLF+TLIF techniques (25 patients in each group) by a single surgeon. Back pain, leg pain, and disability were assessed before treatment and until 2 years after surgical treatment using visual analog scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI). Patients were also evaluated for postoperative complications such as infection, neurological complications, and instrument failure. Results: All patients completed the 24 months of follow-up. Twenty patients were females and 30 were males. Average age of the patients was 53 ± 11 years for the PLF group and 51 ± 13 for the PLF + TLIF group. Back pain, leg pain, and disability score were significantly improved postoperatively compared to preoperative scores (P < 0.001). At 3 months of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS score for back pain and leg pain in both groups; however, after 6 months and 1 year and 2 years follow-up, the reported scores for back pain and leg pain were significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group (P < 0.05). The ODI score was also significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group at 1 year and 2 years of follow-up (P < 0.05). One screw breakage and one superficial infection occurred in the PLF+TLIF group, which had no statistical significance (P = 0.373). Conclusion: It seems that accompanying TLIF with PLF might lead to better functional improvement and pain reduction in patients with spondylolisthesis.
  3,054 26 -
Diffusion tensor imaging of cervical spinal cord: A quantitative diagnostic tool in cervical spondylotic myelopathy
Zafer Orkun Toktas, Bahattin Tanrikulu, Orkun Koban, Turker Kilic, Deniz Konya
January-March 2016, 7(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176617  PMID:27041882
Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique potentially able to evaluate the microscopic structural organization of white matter fibers. Aim: This study aimed to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained by DTI in stenotic versus nonstenotic cervical spinal segments of patients with clinical and neurological evidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 21 patients with CSM but without T2 changes on conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor (DT) images from the stenotic and nonstenotic segments of the subjects were obtained. FA and ADC values were estimated and compared with stenotic versus nonstenotic segments. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was used [Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 12.0]. Results: In the most stenotic segments, the mean FA value was significantly lower (0.4228 ± 0.1090 vs 0.6884 ± 0.0075, P < 0.001) and the mean ADC value was significantly higher (1.312 ± 0.2405 vs 0.9183 ± 0.1477, P < 0.001) when compared to nonstenotic segments. In addition, there was a negative correlation between FA and ADC values (r = 0.63, P = 0.002). Conclusions: DTI of the cervical spine seems to be a promising novel imaging modality in patients with CSM. Advances in Knowledge: DTI may offer increased diagnostic sensitivity as compared to standard MRI and enables earlier detection of the disease.
  2,804 27 -
Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases
Akif Albayrak, Baris Ozkul, Mehmet Bulent Balioglu, Yunus Atici, Muhammet Zeki Gultekin, Merih Dilan Albayrak
January-March 2016, 7(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176622  PMID:27041884
Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men). For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years) and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years). Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. Results: In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005) compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. Conclusion: For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective.
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Is atlantoaxial instability the cause of "high" cervical ossified posterior longitudinal ligament? Analysis on the basis of surgical treatment of seven patients
Atul Goel
January-March 2016, 7(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176613  PMID:27041881
Background: Multilevel ossified posterior longitudinal ligaments (OPLLs), particularly those that extend into the high cervical region, are formidable and challenging surgical problems. The aim of the presentation is to analyze the results of surgical treatment of seven consecutive patients having high cervical OPLL with atlantoaxial and subaxial facetal fixations. Objectives: We analyze the role of atlantoaxial instability in the management of OPLL that extended into the high cervical region, above the lower border of C3 vertebra. Materials and Methods: All patients in the series were males. The age of the patients ranged 48-65 years. Clinical evaluation was done by a 5-point clinical grading scale described by us, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, and visual analog scale (VAS). All patients were identified to have relatively "subtle" but definite atlantoaxial facetal instability on sagittal imaging and the instability was confirmed by direct handling of the facets during surgery. All patients were treated by multilevel facetal fixation that included fixation of atlantoaxial facets. The aim of surgery was stabilization and arthrodesis of the involved spinal segments, as instability was considered to be the prime pathogenetic factor of OPLL. Spinal canal decompression, either by anterior corpectomy or discoidectomy or by posterior laminectomy or laminoplasty was not done and no attempts were made to remove the OPLL. At an average follow-up of 8 months, all patients showed progressive symptomatic recovery. Conclusion: Atlantoaxial facetal instability can be a cause or an association of high cervical OPLL. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial joint forms a remarkably effective method of treatment.
  2,695 25 -
Unilateral lag-screw technique for an isolated anterior 1/4 atlas fracture
Semih Keskil, Murat Göksel, Ulas Yüksel
January-March 2016, 7(1):50-54
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176625  PMID:27041886
Study Design: Fractures of the atlas are classified based on the fracture location and associated ligamentous injury. Among patients with atlas fractures treated using external immobilization, nonunion of the fracture could be seen. Objective: Ideally, treatment strategy for an unstable atlas fracture would involve limited fixation to maintain the fracture fragments in a reduced position without restricting the range of motion (ROM) of the atlantoaxial and atlantooccipital joints. Summary of Background Data: Such a result can be established using either transoral limited internal fixation or limited posterior lateral mass fixation. However, due to high infection risk and technical difficulty, posterior approaches are preferred but none of these techniques can fully address anterior 1/4 atlas fractures such as in this case. Materials and Methods: A novel open and direct technique in which a unilateral lag screw was placed to reduce and stabilize a progressively widening isolated right-sided anterior 1/4 single fracture of C 1 that was initially treated with a rigid cervical collar is described. Results: Radiological studies made after the surgery showed no implant failure, good cervical alignment, and good reduction with fusion of C 1 . Conclusions: It is suggested that isolated C 1 fractures can be surgically reduced and immobilized using a lateral compression screw to allow union and maintain both C 1-0 and C 1-2 motions, and in our knowledge this is the first description of the use of a lag screw to achieve reduction of distracted anterior 1/4 fracture fragments of the C1 from a posterior approach. This technique has the potential to become a valuable adjunct to the surgeon's armamentarium, in our opinion, only for fractures with distracted or comminuted fragments whose alignment would not be expected to significantly change with classical lateral mass screw reduction.
  2,590 25 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Ligamentum flavum hematomas: Why does it mostly occur in old Asian males? Interesting point of reported cases: Review and case report
Bulent Ozdemir, Ayhan Kanat, Osman Ersegun Batcik, Hasan Gucer, Coskun Yolas
January-March 2016, 7(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176605  PMID:27041879
Hematoma of the ligamentum flavum (LF) is a rare cause of neural compression and sciatica. Currently, the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of ligamentum flavum hematoma (LFH) are unknown and epidemiological investigations using rewieving of reported cases have not been performed. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with a LFH compressing the spinal canal at the left L2-L3 level, rewieved relevant literature. In Medline research, wefound a total of 50 reported cases with LFHs, and the interesting point of these cases were analyzed. Many of cases were old males. Interestingly, 39 of the 50 cases were reported from Asian countries. The ages of 42 patients could be verified. The youngest age was 45 years, oldest age was 81 years, and mean age was 66.07 years. Thirty-three out of these 42 patients (78.53%) were older than 60 years. An important aspect of the present review is to bring attention for occurrence in older Asian males. With an increasing number of elderly people in the general population, there is a need to investigate risk factors such as sexual gender, age, and geographic location for LFH.
  2,448 25 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Minimally invasive space shuttle laminotomy for degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis
Shunji Asamoto, Jun Muto, Hiroyuki Jimbo
January-March 2016, 7(1):55-58
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176626  PMID:27041887
Study Design: Technical note. Objectives: To show microsurgical technique, considering the meticulous anatomy of the ligamentum flavum (LF). Background: Different methods are available for treating lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). A minimally invasive surgery, namely, space shuttle laminotomy, has recently been proposed. Here, we describe the surgical method for this novel technique. To conduct this surgery accurately, surgeons must have perfect knowledge of anatomy, especially regarding the LF. Materials and Methods and Results: We use this interlaminectomy technique for all cases of LSCS. All patients with LSCS recovered from their neurological deficits in shorter hoslital stays than regular laminectomy. Conclusion: Minimally invasive space shuttle laminotomy (MISSL), which involves a microsurgical technique, is a safe, complication-free procedure.
  2,431 26 -
EDITORIALS
Iatrogeny of Alzheimer's disease: A view point
Manu Kothari, Lopa Mehta
January-March 2016, 7(1):4-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176603  PMID:27041878
  2,386 25 -
CASE REPORTS
Extradural spinal meningioma: Revisiting a rare entity
Guruprasad Bettaswamy, Paurush Ambesh, Kuntal Kanti Das, Rabi Sahu, Arun Srivastava, Anant Mehrotra, Awadhesh Jaiswal, Sushila Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
January-March 2016, 7(1):65-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176630  PMID:27041890
Spinal meningiomas are mostly intradural in location although at times these are associated with some extradural extensions. Purely extradural spinal meningiomas (EDSMs) are however, extremely rare and when present, may cause diagnostic dilemma preoperatively. Only seven cases of pure EDSM have been reported till date. In this paper, we describe two cases of EDSM affecting the cervical spine and present their clinical profiles, radiological findings, operative management, and follow-up data, along with a review of the literature.
  2,277 28 -
An unusual cause of unilateral facial injuries caused by horseshoe headrest during prone positional craniovertebral junction surgery
Chetna Shamshery, Rudrashish Haldar, Arun Srivastava, Ashutosh Kaushal, Shashi Srivastava, Prabhat K Singh
January-March 2016, 7(1):62-64
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176629  PMID:27041889
Pressure injuries are an accepted complication of prone positioning during the neurosurgical procedures. Horseshoe headrest are intended to reduce the incidence and severity of such injuries by allowing limited areas of contact between the skin of dependent areas of contact and the supporting surfaces. We report a case where a patient positioned prone over a horseshoe headrest developed inadvertent unilateral facial pressure injuries following a 6-h long craniovertebral junction (CVJ) surgery. We attempt to highlight this complication, analyze its causation, and briefly review the existing literature related to similar reported injuries.
  2,243 24 -
EDITORIALS
Central or axial atlantoaxial instability: Expanding understanding of craniovertebral junction
Atul Goel
January-March 2016, 7(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176602  PMID:27041877
  2,159 26 -
CASE REPORTS
Recurrent craniospinal epidermoid: A case report
Abhidha Shah, Manoj Patil, Atul Goel
January-March 2016, 7(1):59-61
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.176627  PMID:27041888
We present a rare case of a fourth ventricular epidermoid cyst, which recurred 15 years after the initial radical tumor resection surgery. The recurrence of the tumor extended into the cervical spine. The patient was reoperated and a near-total excision of both the cranial and spinal components of the epidermoid was performed. Our literature search did not reveal any case where there was a simultaneous presence of both the cranial and spinal epidermoid tumors. The possible cause of extension of the cranial epidermoid into the spinal compartment is analyzed.
  1,898 24 -
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