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   2020| January-March  | Volume 11 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 4, 2020

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Incidence and risk factors of reoperation in patients with adjacent segment disease: A meta-analysis
Major B Burch, Nicholas W Wiegers, Sonal Patil, Ali Nourbakhsh
January-March 2020, 11(1):9-16
Study Design: This was a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk factors contributing to reoperation due to adjacent segment disease (ASD). Summary of Background Data: ASD is a broad term referring to a variety of complications which might require reoperation. Revision spine surgery is known to be associated with poor clinical outcomes and high rate of complications. Unplanned reoperation has been suggested as a quality marker for the hospitals. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted using PubMed. A total of 2467 articles were reviewed. Of these, 55 studies met our inclusion criteria and included an aggregate of 1940 patients. Data were collected pertaining to risk factors including age, sex, fusion length, lumbar lordosis, body mass index, pelvic incidence, sacral slope, pelvis tilt, initial pathology, type of fusion procedure, floating versus sacral or pelvic fusion, presence of preoperative facet or disc degeneration at the junctional segment, and sagittal orientation of the facets at the junctional segment. Analysis of the data was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Biostat, Inc.). Results: The overall pooled incidence rate of reoperation due to ASD from all included studies was 0.08 (confidence interval: 0.065–0.098). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated no significant interaction between age and reoperation rate (P = 0.48). A comparison of the event rates between males and females demonstrated no significant difference between male and female reoperation rates (P = 0.58). There was a significantly higher rate of ASD in patients with longer fusion constructs (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: We found that 8% of patients in our included studies required reoperation due to ASD. Our analysis also revealed that longer fusion constructs correlated with a higher rate of subsequent revision surgery. Therefore, the surgeon should limit the number of fusion levels if possible to reduce the risk of future reoperation due to ASD. Level of evidence: IV
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A review of discogenic pain management by interventional techniques
Reddy Ravikanth
January-March 2020, 11(1):4-8
This review article describes the various image guided interventional techniques used for treating chronic backache attributed to disc related pathologies. With the aim of minimum invasion and maximum relief, these procedures comprise predominantly of annuloplasty and disc decompression via different mechanisms. Newer therapies are discussed in this review article with the objective of restoring disc height and its biomechanical function by substitution of biochemical constituents, regeneration of cartilaginous end plate and finally artificial disc implantation.
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Like anterior transoral decompression, will anterior cervical spine surgery find space in history books?
Atul Goel
January-March 2020, 11(1):1-3
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Prevalence of facet joint arthritis and its association with spinal pain in mountain population – A cross-sectional study
Punit Tiwari, Harmeet Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Vivek Jha, Navneet Singh, Arshad Ashraf
January-March 2020, 11(1):36-45
Introduction: People living in the mountains are subject to tough terrain and climbing biomechanics which lead to degeneration of the spine and Facet joint arthritis (FJA). Aims: The goal of present study was (1) to know the prevalence of facet joint arthritis on CT scans in mountain population in regard to (a) different levels in spine (b) age (c) sex (2) to know if there is any significant association between FJA and spinal pain at that corresponding level. Materials and Methods: Bilateral Facet joints of 210 participants (age range, 18 to 97 years) who underwent MDCT imaging for reasons other than spinal pain, were graded and statistically analysed with SPSS software in this study. FJA was defined as at least one joint affected by facet joint disease (grade 2). Results: In our study, Seventy two men (68.5%) and eighty four women (80%) had Facet Joint arthritis. The difference between men and women in the prevalence of FJA was not statistically significant (P = 0.058). The increasing age demonstrated a higher prevalence of facet joint arthritis with statistical significance (P = 0.000). In dorsal and lumbar spine region, there was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of FJA according to spinal level. The prevalence of FJA grade 2 in cervical and dorsal spine region was associated with spinal pain in both men (P = 0.000) and women (P = 0.000). However, no statistically significant association was found between FJA grade 2 and spinal pain in lumbar spine region in both males (P = 0.680) and females (P = 0.680) as well as in total population (P = 0.513). Conclusions: People residing and actually ambulating in the mountain regions and exposed to the terrain have higher prevalence of Facet joint arthritis as compared to general population and this may be an independent risk factor for development of facet joint arthritis. However, a statistically significant relation between FJA and spinal pain exists only in cervical and dorsal spine.
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Is C2-3 fusion an evidence of atlantoaxial instability? An analysis based on surgical treatment of seven patients
Atul Goel, Dikpal Jadhav, Abhidha Shah, Survendra Rai, Saswat Dandpat, Neha Jadhav, Tejas Vaja
January-March 2020, 11(1):46-50
Objective: The authors analyze the rationale of atlantoaxial fixation in patients presenting with symptoms related to cervical myelopathy and wherein the radiological images depicted C2–3 fusion and presence of single or multiple level neural compression of the subaxial cervical spinal cord attributed to “degenerative” spine. Materials and Methods: Seven adult males were analyzed who presented with long-standing symptoms of progressive cervical myelopathy and where imaging showed presence of C2–3 fusion, no cord compression related to odontoid process, and evidence of single or multiple level lower cervical cord compression conventionally attributed to spinal degeneration. There was no other bone or soft tissue abnormality at the craniovertebral junction. There was no evidence of atlantoaxial instability when assessed by conventional radiological diagnostic parameters. Atlantoaxial instability was diagnosed on the basis of clinical understanding, atlantoaxial facetal malalignment, and manual assessment of instability by bone handling during surgery. All the seven patients underwent atlantoaxial fixation and no surgical manipulation at lower cervical spinal levels. Results: At an average follow-up of 34 months, all patients have recovered satisfactorily in their neurological function. Conclusion: The presence of C2–3 fusion is an indication of atlantoaxial instability and suggests the need for atlantoaxial stabilization. Effects on the subaxial spine and spinal cord are secondary events and may not be surgically addressed.
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Minimally invasive spinal fusion and decompression for thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis
Thirumal Yeraagunta, Vamsi Krishna Yerramneni, Ramanadha Reddy Kanala, Govind Gaikwad, H D Pradeep Kumar, Aniket Sharad Phutane
January-March 2020, 11(1):17-21
Objective: The objective was to study the results of the treatment of thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis (SD) through minimally invasive fusion and decompression technique. Materials and Methods: All the patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically (X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography scan) along with necessary laboratory investigations. They underwent the minimally invasive spinal (MIS) decompression and fusion procedure using tubular retractor system and percutaneous transpedicular fixation done under fluoroscopy guidance. They were assessed using pre- and postoperative Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Kirkaldy-Willis functional outcome criteria. Postoperative radiological assessment of fusion was done. Operating time and fluoroscopy duration were also studied. Results: There were a total of 12 patients, with an equal sex ratio of 1:1 with 8 and 4 patients having the involvement of the lumbar and dorsal spine, respectively. The fixation was done in the involved vertebrae in 8 patients and adjacent normal vertebrae in 4 patients. There was an improvement in VAS score from 7.8 to 2.1 and ODI from 64.3 to 16.4. 4 patients had excellent, 7 had good, and 1 had fair outcome in Kirkaldy-Willis functional outcome criteria. There was Grade 2 and 3 fusion in 4 cases each, and 2 patients had Grade 4 fusion. The laboratory studies were found positive for tuberculosis in 3 cases with 7 having necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, and 2 patients had negative results. Conclusion: The MIS procedure is a safe and effective method of the management of SD in the thoracolumbar spine.
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Adjacent-segment “central” atlantoaxial instability and C2–C3 instability following lower cervical C3–C6 interbody fusion: Report of three cases
Atul Goel, Shashi Ranjan, Abhidha Shah, Survendra Rai, Saswat Dandpat, Abhinandan Patil, Ravikiran Vutha
January-March 2020, 11(1):51-54
Aim: We report adjacent-segment “central” or “axial” atlantoaxial instability and C2–C3 instability as the cause of delayed neurological worsening following multisegmental cervical spinal stabilization. Materials and Methods: Three male patients aged 34, 56, and 70 years had been operated earlier for cervical spondylosis by multilevel C3–C6 cervical interbody fusion 6–11 years earlier. After an initial improvement for few years, the patients observed relatively rapid clinical deterioration. When admitted, all the three patients were severely quadriparetic and were brought to the hospital on a wheelchair. Central atlantoaxial instability was diagnosed on the basis of our previously published clinical and radiological parameters. C2–C3 instability was essentially diagnosed on the intraoperative observations. The patients underwent atlantoaxial and C2–C3 fixation. Results: All the three patients had rapid clinical recovery that started in the immediate postoperative period. At an average follow-up of 21 months, the patients walked independently. Conclusions: Identification and treatment of adjacent-segment central atlantoaxial and C2–C3 instability can lead to gratifying clinical outcome.
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Sublaminar fixation versus hooks and pedicle screws in scoliosis surgery for Marfan syndrome
Alessandro Rava, Eugenio Dema, Matteo Palmisani, Rosa Palmisani, Stefano Cervellati, Massimo Girardo
January-March 2020, 11(1):26-30
Background: In patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS), surgical correction of spinal deformities with hooks and/or pedicle screws involves a higher rate of complications than in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, sublaminar instrumentation is often a last resort option. This study wants to assess the ability of sublaminar fixation to achieve three-dimensional scoliosis correction and spine stabilization compared with hook and/or pedicle screw systems. Methods: Twenty-one MFS patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion at a highly specialized medical center in 1995–2017 were divided into two different groups retrospectively evaluated at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Group 1 (8 patients) was composed by hooks and screws instrumentation, while Group 2 (13 patients) was composed by hook or pedicle screw system associated to sublaminar wires/bands. Radiological (correction and long-term stability) and general endpoints (mean blood loss, surgery time, and complications) were compared between the groups. Results: The degree of correction compared with the preoperative status was satisfactory with both approaches, although the difference between them was not significant. No significant differences were found for general endpoints between groups. Conclusion: Our data suggest that scoliosis correction with sublaminar fixation is not inferior to treatment with hooks and/or pedicle screws. Level of Evidence: III.
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Validation of the concavity–convexity quotient as a new method to measure the magnitude of scoliosis
Gonzalo Mariscal, Jorge H Nuñez, Paulo Figueira, Ana Malo, Verónica Montiel, Miguel A López, Miguel Castro, Carlos Barrios, Pedro Domenech Fern
January-March 2020, 11(1):31-35
Objectives: We propose a novel and simple method to determine the magnitude of the curve in scoliosis and its correlation with the Cobb angle. Methods: Using multiple rounds of nominal group technique and an established consensus-building methodology, a multidisciplinary research group identified a simple method to value the curve deformity based on the vertebral pedicles. Measurements: A mathematical study was performed to determine the relationship between the Cobb angle and the concavity–convexity quotient (CCQ). To evaluate the clinical correlation between the Cobb angle and CCQ, spine surgeons measured 48 curves (before and after follow-up) of congenital scoliosis. Results: This quotient reflects the ratio between the distance from the upper end of the most inclined upper vertebra to the lower end of the most inclined lower vertebra on the concave side (A-distance) and the corresponding distance on the convex side of the curve (B-distance). The existing mathematical relationship is based on changing the explicit coordinates to polar coordinates. Finally, the clinical correlation between the Cobb angle and CCQ was statistically significant (r = −0.688; P < 0.001 in first measure and r = −0.789; P < 0.001 in the second measure). Conclusions: Our study provides Level III evidence that CCQ represents a promising alternative or a complementary method to the traditional Cobb angle due to its simple and reliable ability to measure the magnitude of the curve.
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Cervicothoracic junction disc herniation: Our experience, technical remarks, and outcome
Keyvan Mostofi, Morad Peyravi, Babak Gharaei Moghadam
January-March 2020, 11(1):22-25
Background: C7-D1 disc herniation is rare in comparison with other cervical levels. The incidence rates are between 3.5% and 8%. The cervicothoracic junction disc herniation can be operated posteriorly or anteriorly. The anterior approach can be challenging because of the difficulty of access resulted from the manubrium. In this article, we present our experience about cervicothoracic junction disc herniation (C7-T1) surgery. Materials and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2017, 21 patients have been operated for solitary C7-T1 disc herniation. We operated 12 male patients and 9 female patients. Eight patients have been operated by the anterior approach, and 13 patients underwent surgery by the posterior approach. The mean symptoms duration was 11.4 months. Results: All patients had C8 cervicobrachial neuralgia. Other clinical presentations were numbness, tingling sensation, and weakness. All patients improved after surgery. We had no significant complication. Conclusion: We did not find a great difference between the clinical features of cervicothoracic herniated disc and other cervical levels. The anterior approach seems more difficult to carry out in particularly in large patients with the short neck. The posterior approach can be used for all types of patients except in the case of medial disc herniation.
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Nonscalpel myelopathy: Cervical myelopathy secondary to neuromyelitis optica
Mohit Patel, Hesham Abboud, Manish K Kasliwal
January-March 2020, 11(1):55-56
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Laryngeal dislocation during cervical spine surgery
Nabanita Ghosh, Prasad Krishnan
January-March 2020, 11(1):57-58
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